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Risk Contingency Evaluation in International Construction Projects (Real Case Studies)

Most construction companies operating in the global construction industry would undertake international projects to maximize their profitability through benefitting from the new attractive markets and reducing the dependence upon local markets. As a result of the nature of construction works the company and project’s conditions actually include massive risks and uncertainty. So the risk sensitivity of projects costs should be assessed in a realistic manner.
The comprehensive risk assessment method was introduced as a decision making supporting tool to be employed for international constructive projects through applying a risk model that will aid the procedures of evaluating risks and prioritizing such projects and assessing risk contingency value. Both the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), applied for evaluating risk factors weight (likelihood), and FUZZY LOGIC approach, applied for evaluating risk factors influence (Risk consequences) employing software aids such as EXECL and MATLAB software, were used for developing the risk model.
The reliability of the developed software has been verified by applications on a real construction projects. The proposed methodology and decision support tool have been proved to be reliable for the estimation of cost overrun resulting from risk on basis of actual final reports of projects.
Six actual case studies from different countries were chosen to determine the highest risk factors and to implement the designed models, test their results and evaluate risk cost impact. The proposed models result showed that: the highest and lowest risk contingency percentage of 48 % and 16 % were in Project no (5), (6) respectively in Egypt. On the other hand, the projects no (1, 2, 4,7) in Saudi Arabia, UAE, Libya and Jordan, the risk contingency of 29%, 39%, 20% and 28% respectively. The actual results are close to those of the proposed program.

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Design and Analysis of Pressure Vessel Using Finite Element Method

Pressure vessel is used to carry liquids such as petrol, kerosene, aviation fuel etc and these fuel tanks are used to transport fuel. Finite element method is a mathematical technique used to design a fuel carrying vessel and performing the stress analysis. In this the geometrical model is created and the model is sub divided into smaller elements. It is subjected to internal pressure and these Boundary conditions are applied at specified points. The aim of this paper is to design a model and analysis of fuel carrying tank using finite element analysis software and also select a proper material composition for pressure vessel.
Designing is validated according to maximum principal stress theory and Distortion theory by taking design factor or factor of safety. The comparisons also made between the calculation results and software results.

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Modification of Cost Equation for Optimization of Cutting Parameters in Turning in view of Energy Conservation

With depleting pace of natural energy resources and pollution in the environment it is necessary to reduce the amount of energy consumption. On the other hand price of energy is increasing due to likely increase in oil prices. So it is necessary to see the effect of energy cost in total machining cost. In the present work conventional cost equation is modified to consider the energy cost as variable of v, f and d instead of energy cost as constant in conventional cost equation. Different costs are compared by taking the particular value of parameters v, f and d. It was found that energy as a variable cost have considerable portion in total machining cost.

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Adsorption Studies on The Removal of Reactive Red Dye from Aqueous Solution Using ECH Crosslinked Chitosan Beads

The increase in the use of dyes in industries has caused major problems in the treatment of the industrial effluent. The need to create economically and ecologically sound solutions to this problem has been investigated here. Bio-adsorbent chitosan has shown very promising characteristics in this field. A comparative study of adsorption of aqueous Reactive red dye solution on non-cross linked chitosan beads and ECH cross linked chitosan beads was conducted using batch operations. The extent of adsorption was tested against parameters of time, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, rpm and pH. Cross linked beads were found to be more efficient than normal beads. ECH cross linked chitosan beads are visibly more rigid than chitosan beads and they have high stability in acidic medium compared to chitosan beads which disintegrate in acidic medium. A higher initial concentration of dye and pH of 3 was found to be favorable for adsorption. Complete removal of dye was achieved at 3 hours for a dye solution of 100ppm at pH 3. Kinetic rate studies established that the pseudo-second order kinetics was most suited to the adsorption of reactive red onto chitosan beads The Freundlich isotherm was in agreement with the experimental data.

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Current Status of an Industrial Waste: Red Mud an Overview

Red mud is a solid residue Produced during the alumina production by the bayer process from bauxite. The red mud generated by this process is highly alkaline with pH usually ranging from 10 to 13. Due to its hazardous corrosive nature its posing a very serious and alarming environmental problem. Globally there are approximately 90 million tonnes of red mud being produced every year. More than 4 million tons of red mud is generated annually in India only. The amount of the red mud generated per ton of the alumina processed, varies greatly with the type of the bauxite ore used. Due to its hazardous nature it is a great challange to researcher to develop new methods for the application of red mud. Various research work going on for the storage, disposal and utilization of the red mud in all over the world. This paper reviews the current status and future trend of the red mud characterization, disposal, various neutralization methods and utilization in world as well as in Indian context.

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Communication System for Underground Mines Using Li-Fi 5G Technology

In this paper presents an overview of Li-Fi 5G communication system for underground mines for passing emergency information to the worker under risk conditions. The system includes light/voice signal can be used for data transmission. Recent tragic events and mine emergencies at the Alma, Saga, queered and mines have highlighted the need for reliable communications between inside and outside mines. Nowadays, the most of the mines using radio wave communication for their information exchange. While doing that the proper data communication through radio wave is not possible at the bottom of underground mines because of irregular data propagation and limited frequency range 3 kHz-300 GHz. So, Wi-Fi technology is replaced by Li-Fi 5G technologies, the basic idea behind this technology is visible light communication. According to this technology, it has covered wide range of frequency (430-790) THZ and fast data transmission when compared to Wi-Fi.

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High Pass Filter Design and Analysis Using Hamming, Hanning and Nuttall Windows

Digital Signal Processing is an alternative method for processing the analog signal. It concerned with the digital signal representation, transformation and manipulation of signals and the information they contain. In this paper high pass filter has been designed and simulated using different windows techniques. Hamming and Hanning windows techniques are used along with Nuttall window technique for the design analysis and has been compared these three windows by using matlabs. The simulated result shows that Nuttall window has greater mainlobe width and less Peak–to-Sidelobe Level Ratio (PSLR) in comparison of Hamming and Hanning windows.

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Footstep Energy Harvester Using Piezoelectric Transducer

Innovation, design and implementation of new technologies leading environment and societal benefits, is the basis of this project, which aims to provide an alternative to an existing product, giving it added value, generating energy cleanly and storing it for reuse. The development of the idea behind the project deals with the need of using piezoelectric transducers to produce energy by harvesting it from the footsteps. Walking is the most common activity in day to day life. When a person walks, he loses energy to the road surface in the form of impact, vibration, sound etc, due to the transfer of his weight on to the road surface, through foot falls on the ground during every step. This energy can be tapped and converted in the usable form such as in electrical form and can be temporarily stored for later use.

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Effective Organizational Structure for Construction Industry: Case Study

This Paper is intended to describe the various types of factors affecting the effectiveness of the organizational structures used in the different types of construction project. Thus the factors of organization affecting the effective working of project can be determined. These factors can be proposed for improvement for both private as well as for Publicproject.The ten main factors & their subfactor are determined through literature review.Thought all ten factors are responsible for the effectiveness of organization; some factors are critically responsible for working of organization. These factors will going to determinethrough this paper. Thus, necessary recommendation will be given for the respective organizations. Thus this paper can be helpful to improve the characteristics of organizations, which can be implemented in future, for major construction projects.

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Design and Fabrication of Pneumatic Arm for Pick and Place of Cylindrical Objects

This project aims to Design and fabricate pneumatic arm for pick and place of cylindrical objects. The handling of materials and mechanisms to pick and place of objects from lower plane to higher plane and are widely found in factories and industrial manufacturing. There are number of pneumatic arms are available which consists of so many mechanisms hence becomes expensive. The designed pneumatic arm consists of two cylinders, a shaft works with lead screw mechanism capable of converting motion of piston to rotational motion of arm with help of using compressed air. The designed processes are carried out based on integrated information of kinematics dynamics and structural analysis of the desired robot configuration as whole. The highly dynamic pneumatic arm model can be easily set at intermediate positions by regulating the pressure using the flow control valve. It can be used in loading and unloading of goods in a shipping harbour as the movement of goods is done from lower plane to higher plane.

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Investigation and Performance Evaluation of Pine oil blended with Diesel using the Twin Cylinder Diesel Engine

In view of increasing pressure on crude oil reserves and environmental degradation as an outcome, fuels like Biofuel may present a sustainable solution as it can be produced from a wide range of carbon based feedstock. Thepresent investigation evaluates Biofuelas a C I engine fuel. The objectives of this report is to analyze the fuel consumption and the emission characteristic of a twin cylinder diesel engine that are using Biofuel& compared to usage of diesel that are available in the market. This report describes the setups and the procedures for the experiment which is to analyze the emission characteristics and fuel consumption of diesel engine due to usage of the both fuels. Detail studies about the experimental setup and components have been done before the experiment started. Data that are required for the analysis is observed from the experiments. Calculations and analysis have been done after all the required data needed for the thesis is obtained. The experiment used C I engine with no load which means no load exerted on it. A four stroke Twin cylinder C I engine was adopted to study the brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption, and emissions at different loads with the fuel of Biofuel. In this study, the diesel engine was tested usingBiofuel. By the end of the report, the successful of the project have been started which is Twin cylinder C I engine is able to run with Bio fuel but the engine needs to run by using diesel fuel first, then followed by Bio fuel and finished with diesel fuel as the last fuel usage before the engine turned off. The performance of the engine using Biofuel compared to the performance of engine with diesel fuel. Experimental results of Bio fuel and Diesel fuel are also compared.

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Finite State Machine Serial Adder

Logic design is in itself bifurcated to- Combinational and Sequential circuits. The later has memory and former doesn’t, so in an advent effort to incorporate memory into a combinational circuit brought in the concept of Finite state machine serial adder.

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Wireless Water Level Controller Using Zigbee

Water is the most important Nature’s gift to the mankind. Without Water there is no life. Now man understood its importance, especially where water is not easily available. Now this is being managed by the proper manner in city areas where the use of water is more than its availability. This is one of the motivations for this research, to deploy computing techniques in creating a barrier to wastage in order to not only provide more financial gains and energy saving, but also help the environment and water cycle which in turn ensures that we save water for our future. In this paper we have discussed about design and implementation of water level control system which is wireless, automatic, cost effective and reliable. It uses two zigbee transceivers along with a controller each installed at the tank and in the household. Zigbee transceivers are used for wireless communication. It is completely automated with the help of a microcontroller. Installation cost is reduced since the system is wireless. It is reliable because it has no problems arising after installation such as breakage of wire.

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DC Electrical Transport Properties and Non–adiabatic Small Polaron Hopping conduction in Semiconducting Vanadate Glasses

Transition metal oxide (TMO) doped semiconducting glass nano–composites xV2O5–(1–x) (0.05MoO3–0.95ZnO), x= 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 and 0.93 have been develop by conventional melt quenching technique. The temperature and compositional dependences of the dc electrical transport properties of as prepared vanadate glasses have been reported. Low and high temperature activation energy, density of states at Fermi level, optical phonon frequency and Debye temperature have been computed. Formation of small polaron has been confirmed from dc electrical conductivity experimental data and conductivity is due to mainly polaron hopping from V+4 to V+5 valence state in these glassy systems. The Schnakenberg’s multiphonon assisted hopping model of small polaron is the best model to interpret the temperature dependence of the activation energy and the conductivity over the entire temperature range of measurement. The various polaron hopping parameters such as polaron radius, polaron band width (J), polaron hopping energy and the value of electron–phonon interaction coefficient (γP) have been evaluated. The estimated value of hopping carrier mobility (μ) and hopping carrier concentration (NC) is found to depend on temperature and V2O5 content. According to Holstein, it is confirmed that non–adiabatic small polaron hopping is responsible for the electrical conductivity in presently studied glassy systems..

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Comparative Study of Indirect Solar Drying, Electric Tray Drying and Open Sun Drying of Pineapple Slices Using Drying Kinetics and Drying Models

In this study comparison between electric tray drying, solar cabinet drying and open sun drying was done using drying kinetics of pineapple slices. A laboratory scale solar dryer was designed and fabricated with a capacity of 1kg, for electric tray drying a convective electric drying oven was used and for open sun drying a white tile with pineapple slices was placed in the open sun. Drying temperature, moisture content (MCwb), drying rate, drying ratio (MR) and effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) were the indicators used for comparisons. Four common convective drying mathematical models namely Newton, PAGE, Henderson & Pabis and the Logarithmic model were compared for goodness of fit. The PAGE model showed the highest correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.940032652. The Henderson & Page model had the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.018514552. Both models were used to estimate and compare the model constants a, c and n the empirical constants and k the drying constant. These values showed very little difference between solar drying and electric tray drying. Effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) was compared. Deff was 19 x 10-9 m2s-1, 1.5x10-9m2s-1 and 1.1x10-9 m2s-1 in tray, solar and sun drying respectively.

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Energy Potential of Nigeria’s Natural Bitumen and Coal

Despite Nigeria being blessed with vast quantities of fossil energy resources, a wide gap still exists between the country’s required energy and the generated amount. This shortfall can be met by harnessing Bitumen and Coal which are hitherto not being given adequate attention like Crude Oil and Natural gas. The country’s Bitumen and Tar sand have a moderately high calorific value; HCV of 27,043.55KJ/kg and 27,759.77KJ/kg respectively which is a great deal of potential energy waiting to be harnessed. Majority of her Coal reserve deposits is bituminous, but with a class; it has a higher percentage content of Carbon and Hydrogen, and lower percentage content of Sulphur. These properties make it a cleaner and better source of energy generation in comparison to other countries bituminous coal.

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Necessary & Sufficient Conditions for Consistency of Conditional Parameter XML Tree Expressions to their Resizable Hadoop Cluster Complexity

We develop a novel technique for resizable Hadoop cluster’s lower bounds, bipartite matching rectangular array of conditional parameter XML tree expressions. Specifically, fix an arbitrary hybrid kernel function f:{0,1}n ->{0,1} and let Af be the rectangular array of conditional parameter XML tree expressions whose columns are each an application of f to some subset of the variables x1, x2,... x4n. We prove that Af has bounded-capacity resizable Hadoop cluster’s complexity omega(d) , where d is the approximate degree of f . This finding remains valid in the MapReduce programming model, regardless of prior measurement. In particular, it gives a new and simple proof of lower bounds for robustness and other symmetric conjunctive predicates. We further characterize the discrepancy, approximate PageRank, and approximate trace distance norm of Af in terms of well-studied analytic properties of f, broadly generalizing several findings on small-bias resizable Hadoop cluster and agnostic inference. The method of this paper has also enabled important progress in multi-cloud resizable Hadoop cluster’s complexity

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Comparative Analysis of Shrinkage of Pineapple during Convective Drying in Sun, Solar and Electric Tray Drying

In this study, a comparative analysis was done on the shrinkage behaviour of pineapple slices under three different drying treatments namely solar, open sun and convective electrical tray drying. Pineapple slices were cored and dried under the above mentioned conditions. The diameters and thickness was measured using a vennier calliper and the volume and density were calculated from the collected data. it was noted that there was more shrinkage in tray drying followed by sun drying. Solar drying had the least shrinkage. The reduction in density followed a non-linear exponential reduction. All three drying treatments exhibited the same phenomenon. An exponential function was best in describing the reduction in density in solar drying. For sun and tray drying, the density reduction followed a power function decline. By comparing the volume of water removed versus the fractional volume decrease of pineapple samples in solar drying, sun drying and tray drying respectively it was noted that again a linear relationship prevailed in all three cases. The linear correlation coefficient (R2) showed that the shrinkage was more linear in sun and tray drying with a similar R2 value of 0.978 and 0977 while that for solar drying was least at 0.956.

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Necessary & Sufficient Conditions for Consistency of Bipartite Matching Polyhedral Path Expressions to their Resizable Hadoop Cluster Complexity

We develop a novel technique for resizable Hadoop cluster’s lower bounds, bipartite matching rectangular array of polyhedral path expressions. Specifically, fix an arbitrary hybrid kernel function f:{0,1}n ->{0,1} and let Af be the rectangular array of polyhedral path expressions whose columns are each an application of f to some subset of the variables x1, x2,... x4n. We prove that Af has bounded-capacity resizable Hadoop cluster’s complexity omega(d) , where d is the approximate degree of f . This finding remains valid in the MapReduce programming model, regardless of prior measurement. In particular, it gives a new and simple proof of lower bounds for robustness and other symmetric conjunctive predicates. We further characterize the discrepancy, approximate PageRank, and approximate trace distance norm of Af broadly generalizing several findings on small-bias resizable Hadoop cluster and agnostic inference. The method of this paper has also enabled important progress in multi-cloud resizable Hadoop cluster’s complexity.

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Modeling of Reduced N-Heptane Combustion in Compression Ignition Engine

Conventional compression ignition engines have high emission rates of Nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matters (PM) than spark ignition engines despite being the most fuel efficient engines ever developed for transportation purposes thus the interest for research on it to make it more efficient and to meet the stringent legislation imposed by many nations’ government.
Reduced N-Heptane (29 species, 52 chemical reactions) which is a representative of Diesel fuel was utilized in the model by importing it from the relevant files into the chemical reaction interface using the relevant governing equations and solved with COMSOL 5.0 which employs the finite difference method of solution. The model was used to study the effect of compression ratio and engine speed on the performance of the engine as it relates to species concentration, peak temperature and pressure, and the derived mechanical energy.
The derived mechanical energy, peak temperature and pressure increased with increased compression ratio. The concentration of species n2, o2 and co2 also showed an increase with increase in compression ratio.
The engine speed affects the period required to complete the combustion process, the time being shortened with increased engine speed. The derived mechanical energy also decreased with increased engine speed, the value being -1370.7J at a compression ratio of 18 and engine speed of 1500rpm and - 1353.6J at the same compression ratio but engine speed of 2000rpm..

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What is a Geometric Spanner of Resizable Hadoop Channel for Homogeneous Lower Bounds?

We develop a novel technique for resizable Hadoop cluster’s lower bounds, the template matching rectangular array of geometric spanner expressions. Specifically, fix an arbitrary hybrid kernel function f:{0,1}n ->{0,1} and let Af be the rectangular array of geometric spanner expressions whose columns are each an application of f to some subset of the variables x1, x2,... x4n. We prove that Af has bounded-capacity resizable Hadoop cluster’s complexity omega(d) , where d is the approximate degree of f . This finding remains valid in the MapReduce programming model, regardless of prior measurement. In particular, it gives a new and simple proof of lower bounds for robustness and other symmetric conjunctive predicates. We further characterize the discrepancy, approximate PageRank, and approximate trace distance norm of Af in terms of well-studied analytic properties of f , broadly generalizing several findings on small-bias resizable Hadoop cluster and agnostic inference. The method of this paper has also enabled important progress in multi-cloud resizable Hadoop cluster’s complexity.

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Application of Handheld Device for Topographical Mapping in Remote Area “Bhulekh and Crop Updation in Hilly Areas”

In India land data is maintained by the revenue Department and is regularly updated by the latter as and when new data is generated at the sub-district level. Looking at the complexity and volume of land records and data collected at village level by the Revenue Functionary, usage of Hand Held device was proposed. The first device that was used by Land Record Information System was ―Simputer‖ for data collections. The Land Records Information System attempts to cover all processes involved in Recording of Land use, Crop, Tenant and Ownership details including transfer of ownership in its scope of computerization. The Land Records Information System deploys only textual data that is not graphic or spatial. Majority of the data required for land records computerization is available in two important documents per Owner, Mutation register and Land revenue register. Through computerization of the above documents, it is possible to have up to date data and a comprehensive Land Records Information System. This database, once integrated with associated digitized map data, can form a very good base data for development of Geographical Information Systems.

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Finite Difference Modelling of Fluid Flow in Oil Reservoir

The huge cost associated with oil production in an oil reservoir cannot be over-emphasized, the great loss that will result if it fails to produce as expected after the deployment of resources can better be imagined than experienced, hence the need for detailed simulation studies on oil reservoirs. The Governing equations from the conservation of mass for flow was solved using the finite difference technique in the Implicit Pressure and Explicit Saturation (IMPES) scheme utilizing Visual Basics 6.0 language as the computer code. The model was used to predict reservoir pressure and saturation history for each of the phases (oil, water, and gas) in the reservoir for days between 30 and 510 days. A pressure plot of production and saturation history was then obtained. The results showed a continued reduction in the reservoir pressure with increasing production time, and a similar trend was observed for the oil saturation values too. The gas saturation and water saturation on the other hand increased with the production time. However at oil saturation value of 0.2, no further reduction was observed, from which it was concluded that a critical oil saturation of 0.2 exist below which there can be no more production of oil....

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Problems on Inverted Index Summarization Expressions for Resizable Hadoop Cluster Channel and Cluster Complexity

We develop a novel technique for resizable Hadoop cluster’s lower bounds, the template matching rectangular array of inverted Index summarization expressions. Specifically, fix an arbitrary hybrid kernel function f{0,1}n→{0,1} and let Af be the rectangular array of inverted Index summarization expressions whose columns are each an application of f to some subset of the variables x1, x2,…, x4n. We prove that Af has bounded-capacity resizable Hadoop cluster’s complexity omega(d), where d is the approximate degree of f. This finding remains valid in the MapReduce programming model, regardless of prior measurement. In particular, itgives a new and simple proof of lower bounds for robustness and other symmetric conjunctive predicates. We further characterize the discrepancy, approximate PageRank, and approximate trace distance norm of Af in terms of well-studied analytic properties of f, broadly generalizing several findings on small-bias resizable Hadoop cluster and agnostic inference. The method of this paperhas also enabled important progress in multi-cloud resizable Hadoop cluster’s complexity...

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Bio-climatic Design Strategies for Buildings in Delhi, India

Building sector plays a vital role towards energy efficiency and energy conservation. In India, building sector accounts almost 35% of the country’s energy consumption. Building sector has been growing rapidly and is expected to increase five folds from 2005 to 2030. This rapid growth presents a challenge as well as an opportunity to design energy efficient buildings and to conserve energy for sustainable development. Energy usage in buildings has been increasing with climate change. Bioclimatic design has enormous potential in minimizing energy usage in buildings and minimizing carbon dioxide emissions. New Delhi being the capital city has witnessed tremendous building construction activities in and around the city. This paper focuses on various bioclimatic design strategies for building design in a composite climate like Delhi. Number of factors which affects thermal comforts i.e. temperature, humidity, rainfall, wind etc has been analyzed to arrive at performance specifications. To address the seasonal requirements which are often contradictory in composite climate, a weighing system, known as Mahoney Table has been used to assess the relative importance of conflicting requirements. The objective of the study is to devise different characteristics of architectural components i.e. layout of the building, spacing, air movement, size of the openings, position of openings, protection of openings, thermal capacity and insulation of walls, roofs and external features of buildings in Delhi.

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Evaluation of Interpolation Methods for Mapping pH of Groundwater

Groundwater is one of the most important natural resources in the world, which is threatenedon its quantity and quality. pH of water is a basic quality parameter and it determines the solubility and biological availability of chemical constituents such as nutrients and heavy metals. Excessively high and low pH can be detrimental in the use of water. Mapping the current situation of groundwater quality providesfor better management of resources. Interpolation methods facilitate to estimate the values for unsampled points and create a continuous dataset to study the spatial distributions. In this study the geostatistical analyst and spatial analyst tools were used to compare the accuracy of different interpolation methods by interpolatingbased on the spatial pattern of groundwater pH in Malwathu Oya cascade-I in Anuradhapura District, using Arc GIS 10.2. The total area of the cascade was divided into 1 km2 grids and forty wells were purposely selected to include two wells per grid,in assessing the groundwater pH during the dry period. Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW), Radial Basis Function (RBF), which are deterministic interpolation methods and kriging which is a geostatistical interpolation method were used with different parameters in both spatial and geostatistical analyst. Empirical Bayesian Kriging was used additionally for geostatistical analyst. The method which shows least root mean square error (RMSE) was selected as the best method to interpolate the spatial variation of groundwater pH. As a spatial analyst tool, Universal Kriging method was given the least RMSE value.As a geostatistical analyst tool, Empirical Bayesian Kriging with linear semivariogram model recordedthe least RMSE value.It can be concluded that geostatistical interpolation method performs better than deterministic interpolation methods for mapping groundwater pH in the study area.

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Steady State Characteristic Performance of the Nigerian 28-bus 330kV Transmission Network Incorporating Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC)

This research paper elucidates a power (or load) flow analysis of the Nigerian 28-bus 330kV transmission network. This expressly reveals the steady state operation of the power system under consideration, which by extension may be applied to other similar networks. The load flow solution would reveal the affected lines whose power flow fall below the values expected, and buses whose voltage magnitude is outside the required range of 0.9 ≤ V ≤ 1.1pu. The Static Synchronous Series Compensator, SSSC, is incorporated into the affected lines to control the flow of power in the network. The performance characteristics of SSSC, a member of the Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices, in controlling the power (active and reactive) flow, reducing the transmission losses and improving the voltage profile of the network is the objective of this research. The Newton-Raphson technique is used in analyzing the load flow problem without and with the FACTS device (i.e. SSSC) incorporated. The results obtained are compared to observe the performance of SSSC in the network. The SSSC model is validated and tested using the IEEE 14-bus test system. The analysis and simulation is done using the MATLAB R2007b software.

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Probability and Reliability Aspects in Pavement Engineering

It is known fact that the structural design of asphalt pavements process is more empirical in nature than the mechanics. Empirical correlation / factors involves in error estimate. Further, while adopting such transfer function, many input parameters are used which are very uncertain and random in nature. Therefore, it is essential to incorporate such uncertainty and considers the probability in the pavement design process. Probabilistically, a pavement is safe when the estimated failure probability or reliability is equal to or higher than the design reliability level. Thus, the consideration of reliability based design of pavement becomes important. Estimated reliability value may be justified provided the proper distributions of pavement performance parameters are adopted including their level of confidence or acceptability. This paper presents the issues related to probability calculation in asphalt pavements. The issues of fatigue and rutting distresses evaluation that involved with many complexities due to materials, structural and loadings conditions, including uncertainty associated with various input parameters are discussed. The resent work also aims to obtain the distributions of performance evaluation parameters and establishes the acceptability of the distributions.

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Predictive Strain Model for Mechanistic-Empirical Rutting Design of Asphalt Pavements

Structural failure in asphalt pavements is happened primarily due to fatigue and rutting. To measure rutting performance, the critical vertical compressive strain ( Ez ) at the top of subgrade layer are normally used in the mechanisticempirical (M-E) pavement design process. However, the computation of Ez in a 3-D multilayered pavement structure with distributed loading is a complex phenomenon. This paper attempts to present simple predictive strain transfer function for estimation of Ez , considering 3-D analysis of asphalt pavements. The developed transfer function is validated and found adequate in prediction of Ez . Degree of accuracy has also been justified statistically. ABAQUS software is used for analysis of pavement structures.

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Bio-oil Production from Fast Pyrolysis of Aquatic Prostate Herb (Achyranthes paludosa)

Pyrolysis of aquatic prostate herb (Achyranthes paludosa) was performed in a semi-batch reactor made of Pyrex glass to determine the characteristics and yields of liquid and solid products. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out at the temperatures ranging from 4000C to 6000C at a constant heating rate of 20 0C min-1. The maximum liquid product yield of 38.52 % (by weight) was obtained and had the calorific values 9.97 MJ/kg for Achyranthes paludosa respectively. The thermal degradation of achyranthes paludosa was studied in atmospheric pressure by TGA. The chemical composition of the bio-oil and bio-char was investigated using 1H-NMR, FT-IR, GC-MS and SEM–EDX. The chemical characterization showed that the bio-oil obtained from achyranthes paludosa can be potentially valued as a fuel and chemical feedstock or blended with diesel after upgrading.

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Redesigning & Optimization of Conveyor Pulley

Conveyor pulley is widely used in the area of material handling equipment field. Pulley is heart of the bulk mining material handling. The main components of conveyor pulley are shaft, drum or shell, end disk or diaphragm plates, locking elements, end disk, lagging and bearing assemblies. Since the stresses and deflections of its parts are depends on each other, an analysis of pulley assembly is mandatory for reliable pulley design. Designing pulley of this kind requires complex calculations of all belt tensions and loads in static conditions. This work will consider assumptions on load variations around its periphery & along the pulley face-width, axial load, self-weight, dead weight and angular velocity. This paper attempts to analyze steady state design characteristics for required capacity of conveyor pulley. The optimization of the design is done through number of iteration by designing problem parametrically.

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Design of Low Power Mixed Radix FFT Processor for MIMO OFDM Systems

A fast Fourier transform (FFT) is an efficient algorithm to compute the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and its inverse. Computing a DFT of N points in the naive way, using the definition, takes O(N2) arithmetical operations, while an FFT can compute the same result in only O(N log N) operations. FFTs are of great importance to a wide variety of applications, from Digital Signal Processing to solving Partial Differential Equations. A pipelined Fast Fourier Transform and its inverse (FFT/IFFT) processor, which utilizes hardware resources efficiently, is proposed for MIMO-OFDM WLAN 802.11n. Compared with a conventional MIMO-OFDM implementation, in which as many FFT/IFFT processors as the number of transmit/receive antennas is used, the proposed architecture uses a single FFT processor with mixed radix and hence reduces hardware complexity without sacrificing system throughput. Further, the proposed architecture can support 1–4 simultaneous input data sequences with sequence lengths of 64 or 128, as needed. A theoretical study and computer simulation (MODELSIM) works of the 128/64 point FFT/IFFT processor is presented..

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Dynamic Response Analysis of Highway Embankment with Different Fill Material Modifications

Safety and stability analysis of civil structures have become one of the most important research areas in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering. This has become imperative due to the increasing stability failures of foundations and embankment slopes as a result of the occurrence of unexpected ground shakes. In this research the dynamic response analysis of highway embankment under different ground modifications was carried out using 2D FEM CAD based software (Geo-Studio) to run numerical model of the highway embankment. The main objective of the present research is to determine the maximum and minimum permanent displacements at the crest, middle and near toe part of the highway embankment body that is subjected to the peak acceleration of an earthquake record. A conceptual model was made of the highway embankment configuration and the engineering properties of the materials modelled are by far large estimates which were refined by data reported by various researchers. Mohr-Coulomb linear elastic model was used for the embankment materials in establishing the initial static stress-strain conditions. The Equivalent elastic constitutive model was used to establish the stress-strain relationship in the dynamic model. Different scenarios of embankment fill modifications were considered. These included normal fill embankment, normal fill embankment with geogrid reinforcement, fly ash fill embankment, fly ash fill embankment with geogrid reinforcement. The maximum vertical and horizontal displacements occur at the crest of the embankment in all three cases of fill material modifications. The maximum vertical displacement of 22cm was observed in normal fill embankment followed by 17.9cm in normal + fly ash fill embankment. In the normal fill geogrid reinforced embankment, 6.8cm of vertical displacement was observed. The least vertical displacement of 5cm was observed in normal + fly ash fill with geogrid reinforced embankment. The fly ash fill with geogrid reinforced embankment prove to be the best performer in seismically active zones.

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Investigation and Performance Evaluation of Pine oil blended with Diesel using the Twin Cylinder Diesel Engine

In view of increasing pressure on crude oil reserves and environmental degradation as an outcome, fuels like Biofuel may present a sustainable solution as it can be produced from a wide range of carbon based feedstock. Thepresent investigation evaluates Biofuelas a C I engine fuel. The objectives of this report is to analyze the fuel consumption and the emission characteristic of a twin cylinder diesel engine that are using Biofuel& compared to usage of diesel that are available in the market. This report describes the setups and the procedures for the experiment which is to analyze the emission characteristics and fuel consumption of diesel engine due to usage of the both fuels. Detail studies about the experimental setup and components have been done before the experiment started. Data that are required for the analysis is observed from the experiments. Calculations and analysis have been done after all the required data needed for the thesis is obtained. The experiment used C I engine with no load which means no load exerted on it. A four stroke Twin cylinder C I engine was adopted to study the brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption, and emissions at different loads with the fuel of Biofuel. In this study, the diesel engine was tested usingBiofuel. By the end of the report, the successful of the project have been started which is Twin cylinder C I engine is able to run with Bio fuel but the engine needs to run by using diesel fuel first, then followed by Bio fuel and finished with diesel fuel as the last fuel usage before the engine turned off. The performance of the engine using Biofuel compared to the performance of engine with diesel fuel. Experimental results of Bio fuel and Diesel fuel are also compared.

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The Segmentation Fusion Method On10 Multi-Sensors

The most significant problem may be undesirable effects for the spectral signatures of fused images as well as the benefits of using fused images mostly compared to their source images were acquired at the same time by one sensor. They may or may not be suitable for the fusion of other images. It becomes therefore increasingly important to investigate techniques that allow multi-sensor, multi-date image fusion to make final conclusions can be drawn on the most suitable method of fusion. So, In this study we present a new method Segmentation Fusion method (SF) for remotely sensed images is presented by considering the physical characteristics of sensors, which uses a feature level processing paradigm. In a particularly, attempts to test the proposed method performance on 10 multi-sensor images and comparing it with different fusion techniques for estimating the quality and degree of information improvement quantitatively by using various spatial and spectral metrics.

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A Computational Study of A Multi Solid Wall Heat Conduction Made Up of Four Different Building Construction Materials Subjected to Various Thermal Boundary Conditions

Heat transfer by conduction (also known as diffusion heat transfer) is the flow of thermal energy within solids and non-flowing fluids, driven by thermal non-equilibrium (i.e. the effect of a non-uniform temperature field), commonly measured as a heat flux (vector), i.e. the heat flow per unit time (and usually unit normal area) at a control surface. Consider a square building wall which is made up of four different materials (refer Fig. 1). The wall is subjected to a hot temperature of 1000C (initial-condition) and is then subjected to various thermal boundary conditions and volumetric heat generation; as shown in a table below. By Computational Fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis i.e.Finite volume analysis for this state of Conduction ,we study the steady state temperature contours for the four different cases. We also analyse the heat transfer (positive for outward/heat-loss and negative for inward/heat-gain) from the different segments of the wall , total heat-gain, total heat-loss and energy balance; for the different cases. Finally we discuss the effect of volumetric heat generation on the results for the types [case C & D] of BCs and try to optimize our result.

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