Abstract: Milk is a pale liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrums, which carries the mother’s antibodies to its young and can reduce the risk of many diseases. Milk contains many other nutrients and the carbohydrate lactose. An emulsion is a suspension of droplets of one liquid into another liquid. Milk is an emulsion of fat in water. Butter is an emulsion of water in fat. The solute is known as the dispersed phase and the solvent is known as the continuous phase. Other examples of emulsions include margarine, mayonnaise, cream, and salad dressing. A colloidal solution is when matter exists in a state of division in between a true solution, which is sugar in water, and a suspension, which is chalk in water. The characteristics of a colloid are small particle size, electrical charge, and affinity of the particles for water molecules. In milk, the whey proteins are in colloidal solution. This paper detects various types of adulteration present in milk products.
Keywords: Types of adulterants and adulterations etc.
Milk is very valuable food, readily digested and absorbed. It consists of nutrients, which are needed for proper growth and maintenance of body. Milk and milk products form a significant part of the diet and a substantial amount of our food expenditures goes on milk and other dairy products. In Pakistan, milk is transported from the point of production to consumers and processing plants by middlemen called “Gawalas”. They don’t maintain proper hygienic conditions during this transport, which leads to increase the total viable bacterial count. They also adulterate milk to increase their profit margin by several chemicals like urea, starch, flour, cane sugar, vegetable oils, detergents etc. Various preservatives like formalin and some antibiotics are also added in milk to increase its shelf life. This addition decreases the nutritive value of milk. These adulterants, preservatives and drugs in milk cause very serious health related problems.
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