Storage management is a general storage industry phrase that is used to describe the tools, processes, and policies used to manage storage networks and storage services such as virtualization, replication, mirroring, security, compression, traffic analysis and other services. Storage management is a process used to optimize the use of storage devices and to protect the integrity of data for any media on which it resides. Optimizing the use of storage devices translates into making sure the maximum amount of usable data is written to and read from these units at an acceptable rate of response. Optimizing these resources also means ensuring that there is an adequate amount of storage space available while guarding against having expensive excess amounts. This notion of optimal use ties in to two of the main areas of storage management: capacity and performance. There are many different devices on which data can be stored. The selection of devices to best meet your storage needs depends primarily on three factors: 1. Performance 2.Availability 3. Cost How you choose to manage your storage determines how you control the devices that store the active data on your system. To be useful, active data must be available and remain persistent even after unexpected events, such as a hardware or software failure. The storage allocation strategy used in each of the three data areas, namely static data area, heap, stack, are different.Stack allocation lays out storage for all data objects at compile time.
- Page(s): 01-03
- Date of Publication: May 2013
- Denial SmithVictoria University Melbourne, Australia
 Aldarmi and Alan Burns, Real-TimeSystems, Group Department of Computer Science. . Buttazzo,G.C.2003. Rate monotonic vs. EDF:. .Docs.oracle/cd/E18752_01/html/816-4520/storage-overview. Rhe.co.nz  Webopedia.com/TERM/S/storagemanagement. . Bituh.com/2012/10/18/15bi-what-are-the- different-storage-allocation-strategies.
Denial Smith "Storage Management" International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science-IJLTEMAS vol.2 issue 5, pp.01-03 2013
This paper Is about Software Engineering, Software Engineering, is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the design, development, operation, and maintenance of software, and the study of these approaches; that is, the application of engineering to software. The initial impact of outsourcing, and the relatively lower cost of international human resources in developing third world countries led to a massive migration of software development activities from corporations in North America and Europe to India and later: China, Russia, and other developing countries. This approach had some flaws, mainly the distance / timezone difference that prevented human interaction between clients and developers, but also the lower quality of the software developed by the outsourcing companies and the massive job transfer. This had a negative impact on many aspects of the software engineering profession.
- Page(s): 04-07
- Date of Publication: May 2013
- Sumit KalraPhd* Indian Institute of Technology(IIT), Kanpur U.P India
1. Abran et al. 2004, pp. 1–1 ACM (2006). "Computing Degrees & Careers". ACM. Retrieved 2010-11-23. 2. Laplante, Phillip (2007). What Every Engineer Should Know about Software Engineering. Boca Raton: CRC.ISBN 978-0-8493-7228-5. Retrieved 2011-01-21. 3. En.wikipedia.org/wiki 4. Automationanywhere.com/solutions 5. Dl.acm.org/event.cfm?id=RE168 6. Research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/people/sumitg/pubs/synthesis.html
Sumit Kalra "Software Engineering and Automation" International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science-IJLTEMAS vol.2 issue 5, pp.04-07 2013
Most renewable energy comes either directly or indirectly from the sun. Sunlight, or solar energy, can be used directly for heating and lighting homes and other buildings, for generating electricity, and for hot water heating, solar cooling, and a variety of commercial and industrial uses. Climate change and global warming concerns, coupled with high oil prices, peak oil, and increasing government support, are driving increasing renewable energy legislation, incentives and commercialization. New government spending, regulation and policies helped the industry weather the global financial crisis better than many other sectors. According to a 2011 projection by the International Energy Agency, solar power generators may produce most of the world’s electricity within 50 years, dramatically reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases that harm the environment. A question arrives in everybody minds that why renewable energy important so the answer for the question is that Renewable energy technologies are clean sources of energy that have a much lower environmental impact than conventional energy technologies and Renewable energy will not run out. Ever. Other sources of energy are finite and will some day be depleted. Renewable energy flows involve natural phenomena such as sunlight, wind, tides, plant growth, and geothermal heat, as the International Energy Agency explains Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. In its various forms, it derives directly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the earth. Included in the definition is electricity and heat generated from solar, wind, ocean, hydropower, biomass, geothermal resources, and bio fuels and hydrogen derived from renewable resources. Renewable energy resources and significant opportunities for energy efficiency exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to other energy sources, which are concentrated in a limited number of countries. Rapid deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency, and technological diversification of energy sources, would result in significant energy security and economic benefits. Heat pumps and Thermal energy storage are classes of technologies that can enable the utilization of renewable energy sources that would otherwise be inaccessible due to a temperature that is too low for utilization or a time lag between when the energy is available and when it is needed. While enhancing the temperature of available renewable thermal energy, heat pumps have the additional property of leveraging electrical power (or in some cases mechanical or thermal power) by using it to extract additional energy from a low quality source (such as seawater, lake water, the ground, the air, or waste heat from a process). Thermal storage technologies allow heat or cold to be stored for periods of time ranging from hours or overnight to interseasonal, and can involve storage of sensible energy (i.e. by changing the temperature of a medium) or latent energy (i.e. through phase changes of a medium, such between water and slush or ice). Short-term thermal storages can be used for peak-shaving in district heating or electrical distribution systems. Kinds of renewable or alternative energy sources that can be enabled include natural energy (e.g. collected via solar-thermal collectors, or dry cooling towers used to collect winter's cold), waste energy (e.g. from HVAC equipment, industrial processes or power plants), or surplus energy (e.g. as seasonally from hyropower projects or intermitently from wind farms).
- Page(s): 08-10
- Date of Publication: May 2013
- Pankaj Danodia Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (NIT) Nagpur India
- Avish Munjal Malaviya National Institute of Technology (NIT) Jaipur India
1. United Nations Environment Programme Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2007: Analysis of Trends and Issues in the Financing of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency in OECD and Developing Countries (PDF), p. 3. 2. Clean Edge (2009). Clean Energy Trends 2009 pp. 1-4. 3. Ben Sills (Aug 29, 2011). "Solar May Produce Most of World’s Power by 2060, IEA Says".Bloomberg. 4. REN21, Renewables Global Status Report (2006 - 2012)". Ren21.net. Retrieved 2012-10-21. 5. IEA Renewable Energy Working Party (2002). Renewable Energy... into the mainstream, p. 9. 6. International Energy Agency (2012). "Energy Technology Perspectives 2012" 7. En.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renewable_energy
Pankaj Danodia, Avish Munjal "Renewable Energy " International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science-IJLTEMAS vol.2 issue 5, pp.08-10 2013
In this paper, Newton Raphson power flow algorithm in matlab incorporating TCSC is presented. Overview of the different static load models for distribution system has been covered and included in N-R power flow. This paper present effect of TCSC level on transmission system voltage profile for different types of static load types , in which active and reactive power vary with its terminal voltages with as in exponential form, variation of the load voltage for different sizes of TCSC are simulated with 5 bus. It has also been observed that the proposed algorithm can be applied to larger systems and does not suffer with computational difficulties.
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- Date of Publication: May 2013
- Mukesh Kumar Gupta M.Tech Guide, Assistant Prof. in EE Deptt, Jagannath University Jaipur, Rasjasthan, India
- Pardeep rana M.Tech Scholar , Jagannath University Jaipur, Rasjasthan, India
References1. Newton Raphson TCSC Model For Power Flow Solution of Practical Power Networks - Abdel Moamem M.A. & Narayana Prasad Padhy. 2. Multi Objective Optimal Power Flow Model with TCSC for Practical Power Networks - Abdel Moamen M K & Naryana Prasad Padhy. 3. Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator Model for Power Flow Solution of Practical Power Network - C.R. Fuerte Esquivel, Acha & H. Ambriz Peraz. IEEE transactions on Power Systems, vol. 15, No. 1, Feb 2000. 4. Understanding Facts Concepts and Technology of Flexible AC Transmission System N G Hingorani and Laszlo Gyugy – IEEE press. 5. A Newton Type Algorithm for The Control Of Power Flow in Electrical Power Network - C.R. Fuerte Esquivel, E.Acha – IEEE transactions on Power System, vol. 12 No. 4, November 1997. 6. Flexible AC Transmission System - A Case Study - Ramesh Bahri, K.R. Suri, Rajesh Kumar, Rajil Srivastava 7. A Flexible Software Environment for Steady State Power Flow Optimization with Series FACTS Devices - Tna Orfanogianni , Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich. 8. Using Facts Controllers to Maximize Available Transfer Capability Bank Power Systems Dynamics and Control - Claudio A. Canizares, Alberto Berizzi, Paolo Marannino IV. Restructuring, August 24-28, 1998, Santorini, Greece. 9. Reactance Power Management - D.M. Tagare, Tata Mcgraw-Hill Publication copyright 2004. 10. SSR Study for the Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation Application on the Kanpur-Ballabgarh 400KV in Dudina - Sujatha Subhash, A.K. Tripathy, KR Padiyar, Satish Nayyar, Manoj Kumar, PJ Thakkar and KK Arya. 11. Power Flow Control and Power Flow Studies for System with Studies Douglas J. Gotham & G.T. Heydt – IEEE transaction on power system, vol. 13 No. 1 Feb 1998. 12. Improving System Static Security Via Optimal Placement of TCSC - Yungiang Lu and Ali Abur – 2001 IEEE. 13. Thyristor Controlled Series Compensable Application Study Control Interaction Consideration - K. Clark, B. Fardanesh & R Ada –– IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, Vol. 10 No.2, April 1995. 14. Determination of Needed Facts Controller that Increase Asset Utilization of Power System - L.A.S. Pilotto, W. W. Ping, Carvallho, Wey, Long and Edris -IEEE transaction on power delivery vol. 12 No. 1, January 1997. 15. FACTS Modeling And Sunutation In Power Network - Enrique, Claudio R. Fuerte-Esquivel, Ambriz – Perez –John Wiley & Sons Ltd2004. 16. "Thyristor-Based FACTS Controllers for Electrical Transmission Systems", R.Mohan Mathur and Rajiv K. Verma, , IEEE Press and Wiley 17. Reactive Power Control In Electric System - T.J.E. Miller – A Wiley Interscience publication New York 1982. 18. Power System Analysis - Hadi Saadat , Tata MC Graw Hill, Edition 2002. 19. Power System Stability And Control - Prabha Kundur, Tata Mc Graw Hill Edition 2006. 20. Electric Power Systems – C.L. wadhwa , New Age International, Edition 2003 21. Computer Methods and Power System Analysis- W. G. Stagg and Ahmed Albiad
Mukesh Kumar Gupta,Pardeep Rana "Power flow analysis with TCSC using Newton- Raphson Method " International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science-IJLTEMAS vol.2 issue 5, pp.11-17 2013
A simplified color image formation model is used to construct an algorithm for image reconstruction from CCD sensors samples. The proposed method involves two successive steps. The first is motivated by Cok’s template matching technique, while the second step uses steerable inverse diffusion in color. Classical linear signal processing techniques tend to over smooth the image and result in noticeable color artifacts along edges and sharp features. The question is how the different color channels should support each other to form the best possible reconstruction. Our answer is to let the edges support the color information and the color channels support the edges, and thereby achieve better perceptual results than those that are bounded by the sampling theoretical limit. This paper introduces a new interpolation technique for Demosaicing of color images produced by single-CCD digital cameras. We show that the proposed simple linear filter can lead to an improvement in PSNR when compared to a recently introduced linear interpolator. The proposed filter also outperforms most nonlinear demosaicing algorithms, without the artifacts due to nonlinear processing, and a much reduced computational complexity.
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- Date of Publication: May 2013
- Vishakha GoyalInternational Institute of Management, Engineering & Technology, Jaipur, Rasjasthan, India
- Nitin Khandelwal International Institute of Management, Engineering & Technology, Jaipur, Rasjasthan, India
 D. R. Cok, “Reconstruction of CCD images using template matching,” in Proc. IS&T Ann. Conf./ICPS, 1994, pp. 380–385.  G. H. Cottet and M. El Ayyadi, “A Volterra type model for image processing,” IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 7, pp. 292–303, March 1998.  G. H. Cottet and L. Germain, “Image processing through reaction combined with nonlinear diffusion,” Math. Comput. vol. 61, pp. 659–673, 1993.  P. T. Eliason, L. A. Soderblom and P. S. Chavez, “Extraction of topographic and spectral albedo information from multi spectral images,” Photogram. Eng. Remote Sensing, vol. 48, pp. 1571–1579, 1981.  B. V. Funt, M. S. Drew, and M. Brockington, “Recovering shading from color images,” in Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Computer Vision, ECCV’92, vol. 588 G. Sandini, Ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1992, pp. 124–132.  D. Gabor, “Information theory in electron microscopy,” Lab. Investigat.,vol. 14, pp. 801–807, 1965.  G. Healey, “Using color for geometry-insensitive segmentation,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 6, pp. 920–937, 1989.  R. Kimmel, R. Malladi, and N. Sochen, “Image processing via the beltrami operator,” in Proc. 3rd Asian Conf. Computer Vision, Hong Kong, Jan. 1998.  M. Lindenbaum, M. Fischer, and A. M. Bruckstein, “On Gabor’s contribution to image enhancement,” Pattern Recognit., vol. 27, pp. 1–8, 1994.  G. Sapiro and D. L. Ringach, “Anisotropic diffusion of multivalued images with applications to color filtering,” IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 5, pp. 1582–1586, 1996.  N. Sochen, R. Kimmel, and R. Malladi, “A general framework for low level vision,” IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 7, pp. 310–318, 1998.  J. Weickert, “Anisotropic diffusion in image processing,” PhD D. Cok, “Signal Processing Method and Apparatus for Producing Interpolated Chrominance Values in a Sampled Color Image Signal,” U.S. patent 4 642 678, 1987.  J. Adams, “Interactions between color plane interpolation and other image processing functions in electronic photography,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 2416, pp. 144–151, 1995.  T. W. Freeman, “Median Filter for Reconstructing Missing Color Samples,” U.S. Patent 4 724 395, 1988.  J.Weldy, “Optimized design for a single-sensor color electronic camera system,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 1071, pp. 300–307, 1990.  H. Hibbard, “Apparatus and Method for Adaptively Interpolating a Full Color Image Utilizing Luminance Gradients,” U.S. Patent 5 382 976, 1996.  C. Laroche and M. Prescott, “Apparatus and Method for Adaptively Interpolating a Full Color Image Utilizing Chrominance Gradients,” U.S. Patent 5 373 322, 1994.  J. Hamilton and J. Adams, “Adaptive Color Plane Interpolation in Single Sensor Color Electronic Camera,” U.S. Patent 5 629 734, 1997.  J. Adams, “Design of practical color filter array interpolation algorithms for digital cameras,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 3028, pp. 117–125, Feb. 1997.  D. Cok, “Signal Processing Method and Apparatus for Sampled Image Signals,” U.S. Patent 4 630 307, 1986.1, pp. 123–132, 2002.  “Recommendations on Uniform Color Spaces, Color Difference Equations, Psychometric Color Terms,” C. I. E, Supplement no. 2 to CIE publication no. 15(E.-l 31) 1971/(TC-1.3), 1978.  M. D. Fairchild, Color Appearance Models. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 1997.  M. Mahy, E. Van, and O. A., “Evaluation of uniform color spaces developed after the adoption of CIELAB and CIELUV,” Color Res. Applicat., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 105–121, 1994.  A. Jain, Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1989.  E.Wesley, L. Griff, and S.William, “Demosaicking methods for Bayer color arrays,” J. Electron. Image 2002.  [Online] Available: https://www.cs.technion.ac.il/~ ron/Demosaic/.
Vishakha Goyal, Nitin Khandelwal "Image demosaicing and reconstruction of bayer-patterned color images from color CCD samples using high-quality linear interpolation" International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science-IJLTEMAS vol.2 issue 5, pp.18-25 2013
A promising new star on the IT horizon, Data Warehousing overcomes many of the shortcomings of early Decision Support and Executive Information System. A key to successful Data Warehousing though is to understand that a Data Warehouse is not just a collection of technologies but architecture. Data warehousing methodologies share a common set of tasks, including business requirements analysis, data design, architectural design, implementation and deployment. This paper explains the various components of a matured Data Warehouse architecture. It examines the different evolutionary routes that an organization can take to developing a Corporate Data Warehouse solution. The presented data warehouse architectures are practicable solutions to tackle data integration issues and could be adopted by small to large clinical data warehouse applications.
- Page(s): 26-28
- Date of Publication: May 2013
- Renu BagoriaHead of Department Jagannath University, Jaipur
- Ashish AmeriaJagannath University, Jaipur
- Nitin GuptaJagannath University, Jaipur
https://world.std.com/~cme/html/timeline.htm  www.wikipedia.com  3-Tier Architecture Prepared By Channu Kambalyal  Introduction to 3-Tier Architecture By: Brian Mains
Renu Bagoria, Ashish Ameria, Nitin Gupta "Three-Tier Architecture of Data Warehouse" International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering,Management & Applied Science-IJLTEMAS vol.2 issue 5, pp.26-28 2013
A brief theoretical foundation has worked and explain the expands upon QAM and FSK modulation in the application of Frequency Hopped spread spectrum systems FHSS. Here by the help of this paper, we mainly concentrate on the Bit Error Estimation in Frequency Hop Spread Spectrum System by the use of Quadrature Amplitude modulation and Frequency shift keying which are mainly used in the area of defense applications. The performance of transmission modes are evaluated by calculating the probability of Bit Error Rate (BER) versus the Signal Noise Ratio (SNR) under the frequently used three wireless channel models AWGN, Rayleigh and Rician . We consider the data rate and data modulation to analyze the performance that is BER vs. SNR and we also consider multipath received signals. The transmission performance had shown by simulation results, modes under different channel models and the number of antennas. We observed that some transmission modes are not efficient in IEEE 802.11b based on simulation results,. This paper provides a systematic approach for evaluating the performance of FHSS operating with coherent M-ary FSK demodulation. The investigations into the frequency hop spread spectrum systems employing different modulation schemes to decrease the BER. There has been much more work done on computing BER of FHSS systems with error control coding by using industry standard convolution coding.
- Page(s): 29-35
- Date of Publication: May 2013
- Manish MeenaResearch Scholar JNIT, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
- Mr. Manvendra Singh KuntalAssistant Professor & Research member ECED at CIITM, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
 R. L. Pickholtz, L. B. Milstein and, D. L. Schilling “Theory of spread spectrum communications- A Tutorial”, ‖ IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-30, no. 5, May 1982  Raymond L. Pickholtz, ―“Theory of spread spectrum communication” – A tutorial‖, IEEE Trans. Communication, vol. 30, No.5, May 1982  B. Sklar, “Digital Communications: Fundamentals and Applications,” 2nd Ed., Prentice Hall, 2001.  R. E. Ziemer, R. L. Peterson, and D. E. Borth, Introduction to Spread-Spectrum Communications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice- Hall, 1995.  A. K. Datta , N.B chakrabarti, , “introduction to the principles of digital communication", New Age Publishers, 2007.  Erik Storm, Tony Ottosson, Arne Svensson, “An introduction to spread spectrum systems”, Department of signals and systems, Chalmers university of technology, Sweden, 2002  Raymond L. PICKHOLTZ, “Theory of spread spectrum communication – A tutorial”, IEEE Trans. Communication, vol. 30, No.5, May 1982  Reuven Meidan, Ryuji Kohno, and Laurence B. Milstein, “Spread Spectrum Access Methods for Wireless Communications”, IEEE Communication magazine, January 1995  Yong Luo, “Spread Spectrum Ranging System – Analysis and Simulation”, Master Thesis in Electronic systems engineering – University of Regina, Saskatchewan, March 1998  D. Schilling et al., “spread spectrum for commercial communications,” IEEE commun. Soc. Mag., pp. 66-79, Apr. 1991  J. Prokis and J. Ketchum, “Adaptive algorithms for estimating and suppressing narrowband interference in PN spread spectrum systems,” IEEE trans. Commun., vol. COM-30, pp. 913-923, May 1982  R. Iltis and L. Milstein, “Signal Processing for Inter ference rejection in spread spectrum communications,” IEEE Acoustics, speech, Sig. proc. Mag., vol. 3, pp. 18-31, Apr 1986  M. E. Hellman and W. Diffe, “New directions in cryptography,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 22, pp. 644-654, Nov. 1976  Zhao Chunhui, Huang He, Liang Yan, Pan Quan “Design of A Spread Spectrum Communication System Based on DSP”, Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Technology in Automation, Control, and Intelligent Systems March 20-23, 2011  Xuehe Zheng,Sen Yang,Ning Zhong, Yu Zhang, Kuangyi Qiao,Jihua Lu,” Modeling and Performance Analysis of Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Communication System “IEEE Xplore Digital Library,2010  David,Kumara Shama, Rajiv Mohan and K.Prabhakar Nayak “Efficient Synchronization and Data detection for DS-CDMA Applications International Journal of Computer and ElectronicsEngineering,ISSN:0975- 4202(Vol.3No.2011),pp-251-261
Manish meena, Mr. Manvendra Singh Kuntal "Performance Analysis of BER with FHSS System" International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering,Management & Applied Science-IJLTEMAS vol.2 issue 5, pp.29-35 2013
INTRODUCTIONHanumangarh is a city in northern Rajasthan state in western India, situated on the banks of the river Ghaggar. Hanumangarh district, situated at 29° 5' to 30° 6' North and 74° 3' to 75º 3' east, shares its boundaries with Haryana state in the east, Sriganganagar district in the west, Punjab state in the North and Churu district in the South. The geographical area of the district is 9656.09 Sq. Km. The climate of the district is semi-dry, extremely hot during the summer and extremely cold during winter. The maximum average temperature remains 18° to 48° and minimum average is 2° to 28° celcius. The average rainfall during the year is 225 to 300 mm.
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- Date of Publication: May 2013
- B.B.S. KapoorHerbal Research Laboratory,Dunger College Bikaner, Rajasthan, India
- Mukesh Kumar SharmaPh.D scholar J.J.T. University Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan, India
1.Everitt, J.H.; Lonard, R.L., Little, C.R. (2007). Weeds in South Texas and Northern Mexico. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press. ISBN 0-89672-614-2.Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants (English) 2. Calflora Taxon Report 8367 Xanthium strumarium L.Weaver, S.E.; Lechowicz, M.J. (1982). The biology of Canadian weeds. 56. 'Xanthium strumarium' L. 'Canadian Journal of Plant Science'. 3.Kamboj Anjoo, Saluja Ajay Kumar "Phytopharmacological review of Xanthium strumarium L. (Cocklebur) 2010 | Volume: 4 | Issue Number: 3 | Page: 129-139 Islam, MR; Uddin MZ, Rahman MS, Tutul E, Rahman MZ, Hassan MA, Faiz MA, Hossain M, Hussain M, Rashid MA. (Dec 2009). 4."Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and toxicological studies of Xanthium strumarium L". Bangladesh Medical Research Council bulletin 35 (3): 84–90. PMID 20922910. 5 www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanumangarh_district 6 www.hanumangarh.nic.in/index.htm 7. www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanumangarh 8.Aminuddin (1977). Production of amino acids in Ephedra foliata suspension culture. Current Science 46: 525-526. 9. Scott, L.; Cadman, A; McMillan, I (2006). "Early history of Cainozoic Asteraceae along the Southern African west coast". Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 142: 47. doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2006.07.010. 10. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). "Family: Asteraceae Bercht. & J. Presl, nom. cons.". Taxonomy for Plants. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 2008-06-12. 11. Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards) Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 9, June 2008 https://www.mobot.org/mobot/research/apweb/welcome.html 12 Jeffrey, C. 2007. Compositae: Introduction with key to tribes. Pages 61-87 in Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, vol. VIII, Flowering Plants, Eudicots, Asterales (J. W. Kadereit and C. Jeffrey, eds.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin 13 Panero, J.L., Crozier, B.S. Tree of Life - Asteraceae https://tolweb.org/Asteraceae/20780 14 International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. In point 18/5 states: "The following names, used traditionaly, are considered valid: Compositae (Asteraceae...).
B.B.S. Kapoor, Mukesh Kumar Sharma "Ecological and phytochemical studies on some Asteraceous plants of hanumangarh district, Rajasthan (Xanthium strumarium)" International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering,Management & Applied Science-IJLTEMAS vol.2 issue 5, pp.36-39 2013
For the sharp rejection the DGS is widely used. In this paper we have designed a LPF that is having a sharp rejection using DGS .In this project a compact microstrip low pass filter is designed with sharp rejection using a defected ground structure (DGS) with compensated microstrip. The equivalent circuit for the DGS and its corresponding L-C parameters are extracted by using its S parameters response (EM simulation) and a simple circuit analysis method. The low pass filter is realized and optimized using cascaded DGS to provide a portable size, excellent sharpness in transition with low insertion loss in pass band and wide rejection in the stopband. Observed results show good agreement with the theoretical results. The results are validated by using CST.
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- Date of Publication: May 2013
- Meenu Bhati Research Scholar, JNU, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
- Juhi Jain Research Scholar, JNU, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
 Wang Huina, Li Guohui, Yan Jun “ CompactDesign Of a Sharp-Rejection Low-Pass FilterUsing a Novel Defected Ground Structure”School of Communication and Information Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai.  Mrinal Kanti Mandal, Student Member, IEEE,Priyanka Mondal, Student Member, IEEE,Subrata Sanyal, Member, IEEE, and AjayChakrabarty, Senior Member, IEEE “Low Insertion-Loss, Sharp-Rejection and CompactMicrostrip Low-Pass Filters” IEEEMICROWAVE AND WIRELESSCOMPONENTS LETTERS, VOL. 16, NO.11, NOVEMBER 2006.  L. H. Weng, Y. C. Guo, X. W. Shi, and X. Q.Chen “AN OVERVIEW ON DEFECTEDGROUND STRUCTURE” Progress InElectromagnetics Research B, Vol. 7, 173–189, 2008.  Dal Ahn, , Jun-Seok Park, Chul-Soo Kim,Juno Kim, Yongxi Qian, and Tatsuo Itoh, “ADesign of the Low-Pass Filter Using the NovelMicrostrip Defected Ground Structure” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVETHEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 49, NO. 1, JANUARY 2001.  Mohsen Hayati and Akram Sheikhi“Microstrip Lowpass Filter with Very SharpTransition Band and Wide Stopband” ETRIJournal, Volume 33, Number 6, December2011.  S. Kumar Parui, S. Das “A New DefectedGround Structure For Different MicrostripCircuit Applications” Radioengineering, Vol.16, No. 1, April 2007.  Mrinal Kanti Mandal, Priyanka Mondal,Student Member, IEEE, Subrata Sanyal,Member, IEEE, and Ajay Chakrabarty, SeniorMember, IEEE “Low Insertion-Loss, Sharp-Rejection and Compact Microstrip Low-PassFilters” IEEE MICROWAVE ANDWIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS,VOL. 16, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2006.
Meenu Bhati, Juhi Jain "Sharp Rejection LPF Using Defected Ground Structure" International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science-IJLTEMAS vol.2 issue 5, pp.40-43 2013
Digital watermarking is a technique in which we embed a watermark image into a host image in order to maintain credibility and authencity of the image and thus giving the owner his due credit as internet is vast and full of fraud and malicious people .So we need a technique like watermarking for ownership protection. Many basic techniques like spatial domain and spectral domain watermarking are available but they are quite vulnerable and can easily be detected. In this paper i would describe a robust invisible digital water marking technique which is less vulnerable and also the distortion is quite less and can be applied to all types of image with ease of understanding and implementation .By using the matrix nature of image and by applying matrix operation the work of watermarking has been quite simplified and thus we get a desirable output with least variations.
- Page(s): 44-47
- Date of Publication: May 2013
- Vivek UpnejaMTECH* Computer Science, Jagannath University Jaipur, India
 Ching-Yung Lin,“Watermarking and Digital Signature Techniques for Multimedia Authentication and Copyright Protection”, PhD Thesis, ColumbiaUniversity, 2000  R. G. van Schyndel, A. Z Tirkel, and C. E Osborne, “A digital watermark“, in Proceedings, IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, vol. 11, pp. 86-90, 1994.  R. J. Anderson and F. A. P. Petitcolas. (1999) Information Hiding: An Annotated Bibliography. [Online]. Available: https://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~fapp2/ steganography/ bibliography/  Robust LSB watermarking optimized for local structural similarity” in Electrical Engineering (ICEE), 2011 19th Iranian Conference, May 2011.  Digital watermarking algorithm using LSB” in Computer Applications and Industrial Electronics (ICCAIE), 2010  Harlekar, S., and Kak, S.C., “Performance analysis of a d-sequence based direct sequence CDMA system”, LSU report,  ] Techniques and applications of digital watermarking and Conte1nt protection by Michael Konrad Arnold, Martin .  J. E. Farrell, Image quality evaluation in colour imaging: vision and technology. MacDonald, L.W. and Luo, M.R. (Eds.), John Wiley, pp. 285-313, 1999
Vivek Upneja "A Simplified Approach For Implementation Of Digital Watermarking" International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science-IJLTEMAS vol.2 issue 5, pp.44-47 2013
The authentication protocols based on classic cryptography use public-key cryptosystems for establishing the common key and some of them have been proven to be secure but they require high amount of resources and they need large keys. This kind of protocols is secure enough even if a small key is used this is another advantage. In this paper we presents secure cryptographic authenticated group key transfer agreement and performance evolution of MAC addresses based protocol for distributed network environment. The protocol is developed for group communication and every member of the group has secret information and the communication start when all this information is put together. So, without online two members can’t communicate to each others. We, also, present some situations where this kind of protocol is needed. It’s well known that in wireless LAN, authenticating nodes by their MAC addresses is secure since it’s not easy for an attacker to learn one of the authorized addresses and change his MAC address accordingly. In order to the MAC address prevent spoofing attacks, we propose to use dynamically changing MAC addresses and make each address usable for only one session. The scheme we propose does not require any change in 802.11 protocols and incurs only a small performance overhead. One of the nice features of our new scheme is that no third party can link different communication sessions of the same user by monitoring MAC addresses therefore our scheme is preferable also with respect to user privacy.
- Page(s): 48-54
- Date of Publication: May 2013
- Babloo KumarResearch Scholar, JNIT, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
- Pranam GoyalAssociate Prof. SBNIT, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
, C.-Y. Chou, J.C Lin, F. Lai, and K. P. Wu, “A distributed key management protocol for dynamic groups," 27th Annual IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, pp. 0113-0122, Nov. 2002 , D. Liu ,P. Ning, and K. Sun, “Cryptographic protocols/ networks ecurity: Enceinte self-healing group key distribution with revocation capability" Proceedings of the 10th ACM conference on Computer and communication security, pp. 231-240, Oct. 2003.  D. Hutchison and S. Rafaeli, “Hydra: A decentralized group key management" Eleventh IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enter prises, pp. 62-67, June 2002.  Y. Desmedt and M. Burmester, “Ancient and secure conference key distribution" Security Protocols Workshop, pp. 119-129, 1996.  L. R. Dondeti, “Enceinte private group communication over public networks," Phd. Dissertation, CSE UNL, 1999.  I. Ingemarsson, D. Tang and C. Wong, “A conference key distribution system," IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 28, pp. 714-720, Sept. 1982.  D. Steer, L. Strawczynski, M. Wiener, and W. Di_e, “A secure audio teleconference system," Advances in Cryptology CRYPTO'88, LNCS, Springer-Verlag, vol. 403, pp. 520-528, Aug. 1990.  G. Tsudik, M. Steiner and M.Waidner, “Di_e-Hellman key distribution extended to group communication," ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, pp. 31-37, Mar. 1996.  Y. Kim, A. Perrig, and G. Tsudik, “Simple and fault-tolerant key agreement for dynamic collaborative groups" In Proceedings of the 7th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, pp. 235-244, Nov. 2000.  A. Perrig, Y. Kim, and G. Tsudik, “Communication-enceinte group key agreement," In Information System Security, Proceedings of the 17th International Information Security Conference IFIP SEC'01, pp. 229-244, June 2001.  A. Bakkardie, “Scalable multicast key distribution," RFC 1949, 1996.  B. Chor and A. Beimel, “Interaction in key distribution schemes," Advances in Cryptology - CRYPTO'93, LNCS, Springer, Berlin, vol. 773, pp. 444-457, 1994.  A. Beimel and B. Chor, “Communications in key distribution schemes," IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 42, pp. 19-28, 1996  R. Blom, “An optimal class of symmetric key generation systems," Advances in Cryptology - EUROCRYPT'84, LNCS, Springer, Berlin, vol. 209, pp. 335-338, 1985.  A. Cresti and C. Blundo, “Space requirements for broadcast encryption," Advances in Cryptology EUROCRYPT'94, LNCS, Springer, Berlin, vol. 950, pp. 287-298, 1995.  C. Blundo, L. A. F. Mattos, and D. R. Stinson, “Generalized Beimel-Chor scheme for broadcast encryption and interactive key distribution," Theoretical Computer Science, vol. 200, pp. 313-334, June 1998  A. Herzberg, C. Blundo, A. D. Santis S. Kutten, U. Vaccaro, and M. Yung, “Perfect secure key distribution for dynamic conferences," Advances in Cryptology - CRYPTO'92, LNCS, Springer, Berlin, vol. 740, pp. 471-486, Aug. 1993.  Y. Desmedt and M. Burmester, “A secure and enceinte conference key distribution system" Advances in Cryptology EUROCRYPT'94, LNCS, Springer, Berlin, vol. 950, pp. 275-286, May 1995.  I. F. Bob Briscoe, “Nark: receiver-based multicast non repudiation and key management" Proceedings of the 1st ACM conference on Electronic commerce, pp. 22-30, Nov. 1999.  H. Bettahar, Y. Challal, and A. Bouabdallah, “Sakm: a scalable and adaptive key management approach for multicast communications," ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, vol. 34, pp. 55-70, Apr. 2004.  W. Chen and L. R. Dondeti, “Recommendations in using group key management algorithms," DARPA Information Survivability Conference and Exposition, vol. 2, pp. 222-227, Apr. 2003
Babloo Kumar, Pranam Goyal "Design a MAC address based Authentication Protocol for Efficient Group Key Agreement" International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science-IJLTEMAS vol.2 issue 5, pp.48-54 2013
We presents in this paper the FPGA design and implementation with performance of low power 64-bit encrypted and decrypted MIPS RISC processor for Data Encryption Standard (DES) , Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), Triple DES based on MIPS pipelined architecture. The pipeline stages organization has been done in such a way that pipeline can be clocked at high frequency. Three standard blocks of Encryption and Decryption cryptography algorithms on MIPS processor and through the help of a block diagram dependency among themselves are explained in detail. Power consumption reduces in the MIPS crypto RISC processor with the help of Clock gating techniques. In this methodology of results in processor that meets power consumption and performance specification for security applications. Simulated results show that the MIPS crypto processor operates successfully at a working frequency of 218MHz and a bandwidth of 664Mbits/s.
- Page(s): 55-64
- Date of Publication: May 2013
- Surendra Bajia Research Scholar, JNU, Jaipur, India
- Rakesh Khedar M. Tech. Scholar, India
 Gautham P, Parthasarathy R, Karthi Balasubramanian.“Low-power pipelined MIPS processor design”, (ISIC 2009), pp. 462-465  Zulkifli, Yudhanto, Soetharyo and adinono. “Reduced Stall MIPS architecture using Pre-fetching accelerator”, International conference on electrical engineering and informatics, IEEE, pp. 611-616, ISBN: 978-1-4244-4913-2, IEEE, Aug. 2009.  Pravin B. ghewari, Mrs. Jaymala K. patil, Amit B. Chougule. “Efficient hardware design and implementation of AES cryptosystem”, International journal of engineering science and technology, 2010 Vol. 2(3), 2010, pp. 213-219, ISSN: 0975-5462  D. A. Patterson and J. L. Hennessy, Computer Organization and Design, The hardware/Software Interface. Morgan Kaufmann, 2005.  Pejman lotfi, Ali-Asghar Salehpour, Amir-Mohammad Rahmani, Ali Afzali-kusha, and zainalabedin Navabi. “dynamic power reduction of stalls in pipelined architecture processors”, International journal of design, analysis and tools for circuits and systems, June 2011, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 9-15.  Refik Sever, A. Neslin Ismailoglu, Yusuf C. tekmen and Murat Askar,”A high speed ASIC Implementation of the rijndael Algorithm”, IEEE International symposium on circuits and systems, 2004.  Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), Nov. 2001 Fed. Inf. Process. Syandards Pub..  Rupali S. Balpande, Rashmi S. Keote. “Design of FPGA based Instruction fetch & decode Module of 32-bit RISC (MIPS) processor”, International Conference on communication Systems and Network Technologies, pp.409-413, ISBN: 978-0-7695-4437-3, IEEE, 2011.  Saeid Taherkhani, Ever and Orhan Gemikonakli.” Implementation of Non-pipelined and pipelined data encryption standard (DES) using Xilinx Virtex-6 technology”, 10th IEEE International Conference on computer and information Technology (CIT 2010), pp. 1257-1262.  Z.navabi.2007, “VHDL: Modular design and synthesis of cores and systems”, pp.283-291, ISBN: 978-0-07-147545-7, McGrew-Hills, 2007.  L. Floyd. “Digital Fundamental with VHDL”, pp.362-368, ISBN: 0-13-099527-4, Pearson Education, 2003.  Yadollah Eslami, Ali Sheikholeslami, P. Glenn Gulak, Shoichi Masui, and Kenji Mukaida, “ An Area-Efficient Universal Cryptography Processor for Smart Cards”, IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, DOI 10.1109/TVLSI.2005.863188, ISBN: 1063-8210, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 43-56, January 2006.  M. Askar, T.Egemen, ”Design and SystemC Implementation of a Crypto Processor for AES and DES Algorithms”, Information Security & Cryptology Conference with International Participation (ISC Turkey), Bildiriler kitabi Proceedings, pp. 145-149, December 2007.  Mohamed Khalil Hani, Hau Yuan Wen, Arul Paniandi, ”Design and Implementation of a Private and Public key Crypto Processor for Next-Generation IT Security Applications”, Malaysian Journal of Computer Science, Vol. 19(1), pp. 29-45,2006.  Nicolas Sklavos, “On the Hardware Implementation Cost of Crypto-Processors Architectures”, Information Security Journal: A Global Perspective, ISSN: 1939-3555 print/ 1939-3547 pp.53-60, June 2010..
Surendra Bajia, Rakesh Khedar "FPGA based Design and Performance Optimization of Low Power 64-bit MIPS RISC Processor based on Cryptographic Algorithms Using VHDL " International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science-IJLTEMAS vol.2 issue 5, pp.55-64 2013
This paper studies the design of SLIM, which can be used to power capsules in a pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) system. The design equations of the SLIM and the equivalent circuit model are studied and discussed in detail and then compared to a similar tubular linear induction motor (TLIM). The SLIM equations and design procedures are developed and its performance is predicted using equivalent circuit models. End effects and edge effects are neglected in this study. The SLIM design algorithm is made completely user-interactive where the user has the convenience of choosing various design parameters like the primary voltage and frequency, number of poles, number of phases and many more. Optimum design parameters are obtained by the iterative procedure of the design algorithm.
- Page(s): 65-68
- Date of Publication: May 2013
- Sushil Kr. SolankiAsst. Proff. KNGDMEC Modinagar, Uttar Pradesh, India
- Vikas Singh Research Scholar J.I.T. Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
- Kapil Kumar Research Scholar
 Nasar, S.A. and Boldea, I., Linear Electric Motors, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1987.  “Electrical traction independent of adhesion,” Le Genie Civil, pp. 381-382, 1901.  Zehden, A., “Travelling wave electric traction equipment,” French patent 321-692, applied for June 2, 1902.  Zelenay, Rosenfeld, and Dulait, “Travelling wave applied to electric railways,”French patent 318 634, Feb. 12, 1902.  Rosenfeld and Zelenay, “Tangential traction,” Bull. Ass. Ing. Mantefiore, Vol. 3,pp. 214-238, 1903.  Birkeland, K., Norwegian Patents 11 228, Apr. 22, 1902, and 13 052, Apr. 23,1903.  “A wound rotor, 1400 feet long,” Westinghouse Engineer, pp. 160-161, Sept. 1946.  Jones, M.F., “Three phase linear motor catapult system,” U.S.Patent 2 404 984,July 30, 1946.  Stephen J. Chapman, Electric Machinery Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, 1999.  Viet Nam Hoang, “Design of Single-Sided Linear Induction Motor”, Bachelor of Electrical Engineering Project, School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Queensland, 2003.  M.G.Say, Theory of Alternating current Machines, John Wiley & Sons Publications.
Sushil Kr. Solanki, Vikas Singh, Kapil Kumar "Design of a Single Sided Linear Induction Motor" International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science-IJLTEMAS vol.2 issue 5, pp.65-68 2013
A static fermentation was developed for citric acid production from are flower of Madhuka longifolia, flower of Bauhinia variegate, pithy pulp of fruit of Adansonia digitata and flower of Bombax ceaba (200 g). Were cut in small pieces and crushed in mixture machine with 50 ml distilled water. After make final volume 1000 ml with distilled water, then after 100 ml this solution add in separate 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks, After add KH2PO4 (100 mg), NaNO3 (400 mg), MgSO4.7H2O (20 mg), and adjust 4.5 initial pH with HCL and 0.1 NaOH. The flask was cotton plugged and autoclaved at 1210 C for 15 minutes. After cooling at room temperature each medium inoculated with 1.0 ml (6.0 X 106) of A. niger (selected strains i.e. A, B, and C) conidial suspension and incubated at 280 C in static incubator for 8 days. After fermentation, the medium was diluted with distilled water (1:4 W/V). The medium was filtered and the filtrate was used for the subsequent analysis. In this study were found that the A. niger –B gives the highest yield of citric acid that is 8.3 grams in given condition, medium and incubation time.
- Page(s): 69-73
- Date of Publication: May 2013
- Padvi Mahavir AjapsingResearch scholar JJT University, Jhunjhunu (Raj.), India
1. Alvarez-Vasquez, F., Gonzalez-Alco, C., Torres, N.V. (2000). Metabolism of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger: model definition, steady-state analysis and constrained optimization of citric acid production rate. J. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 70: 82-108. 2. Schuster, E., Dunn-Coleman, N., Frisvad, J.C., Van Dijck, P.W.M. (2002).On the safety of Aspergillus niger– a review.J. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 59: 426– 435. Jianlong, W., Ping, L. (1998). Phytate as a stimulator of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger.J.Process Biochemistry, 33: 313-316. Lesniak, W., Pietkiewicz, J., Podgorski, W. (2002). Citric acid fermentation from starch and dextrose syrups by a trace metal resistant mutant of Aspergillus niger. J. Biotechnology Letter, 24: 1065–1067. Mirminachi, F., Zhang, A., Roehr, M., (2002). Citric acid fermentation and heavy metal ions: Effect of iron, manganese and copper. J. Acta Biotechnology, 22: 363-373. Papassiopi, N., Tambouris, S., Kontopoulos, A. (1999).Removal of heavy metals from calcareous contaminated soils by EDTA leaching.J. Water, Air, Soil Pollution. 109: 1- 15. Wen, Z.Y., Chen, F. (2001).Application of statistically-based experimental designs for the optimization of eicosapentaenoic acid production by the Diatom Nitzschia laevis. J. Biotechnology & Bioengineering, 75: 159-169.
Padvi Mahavir Ajapsing "Microbial production of citric acid by Aspergillus niger different carbon sources" International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science-IJLTEMAS vol.2 issue 5, pp.69-73 2013