The aim of this paper is to present FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) based implementation of CORDIC (Co-ordinate Rotation Digital Computer) processor for complex DPLL(Digital Phase Locked Loop) for use in I-Q channel demodulator includes phase detector for producing a phase error indicative of a difference in phase between a complex digital input signal and complex digital feedback signal .This structure is very suitable for VLSI implementations. In the first part of the paper, we describe operation of the design of pipelined architecture for coordinate rotation algorithm. The design of CORDIC in the vector rotation mode results in high system throughput due to its pipelined architecture. Then a CORDIC realization of a complex phase-locked loop is introduced. Finally we discuss the effects of the number of iterations to the performance of this kind of phase-locked loop.
- Page(s): 01-04
- Date of Publication: April 2014
- Prof. R.V. BabarAsst.Prof., Dept. of Electronics and Telecommunication Sinhgad Institute of Technology(SIT) Lonavala, Pune, Maharashtra, India
- Dr. M.S. GaikwadPrincipal, Sinhgad Institute of Technology(SIT) Lonavala, Pune, Maharashtra, India
- Ms.Urmila MoreDept. of Electronics and Telecommunication (VLSI and Embedded systems) Sinhgad Institute of Technology(SIT)Lonavala, Pune, Maharashtra, India
 J.E. Volder. "The CORDIC Trigonometric Computing Technique". IRE Transactions on Electronic Computing, vol EC-8, pp 330-334, Sept 1959.  Y.H. Hu. "CORDIC-Based VLSI Architectures for Digital Signal Processing" IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 16- 35, 1992.  Andraka R.A., "Survey of CORDIC Algorithms for FPGA Based Computers”, Proceedings of the 1998 ACM/SIGDA 6th International Symposium on FPGAs, pp 191-200, Monterey, California, Feb.22-24, 1998.  S. Wang, V. Piuri, E. E. Swartzlander. Jr., "Granularly-pipelined CORDIC processors for sine and cosine generators”, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing ICASSP, vol. 6, pp. 3298-3301, 1996.  Y.H. Hu. "The Quantization Effects of the CORDIC Algorithm"IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 40, No. 4, pp. 834-844, Apr. 1992.  M. Chakraborty, A. S. Dhar and Moon Ho Lee, “A Trigonometric Formulation of the LMS algorithm for Realisation of Pipelined CORDIC,” IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems, vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 530-534, Sep.2005.  Byron Edde, “Radar Principles, Technology, Applications” Pearson Education,Inc. ISBN 978-81-317-1383-9.  Vuori J., “Implementation of a Digital Phase-Locked Loop Using CORDIC Algorithm”, IEEE International Symposium on Circuit and Systems, Atlanta, USA 1996, pp. IV-164-167.  A. Mandal, K.C. Tyagi, B.K. Kaushik, “VLSI Architecture Design and Implementation for Application Specific CORDIC Processor”, 2nd IEEE International Conference on Advances in Recent Technologies in Communicaion and Computing (ARTCom),pp 191- 193, Oct 16-17,2010
Prof.R.V.Babar,Dr.M.S.Gaikwad,Ms.Urmila More "Complex DPLL Using CORDIC Processor for I-Q Channel Demodulator" International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science-IJLTEMAS vol.3 issue 4a, pp.01-04 2014
Electricity is an indispensible part of modern day life. Our economy, work, healthcare and livelihood all depends upon constant supply of power. Even a temporary of power can lead to chaos and momentary setbacks. Grid Power Loss can effect to the Losses of Production for Industries and also effect to the Home/Office Conditions also. But industrial sector gets affected more with power cut. So an auxiliary power supply is very necessary and switching of mains supply to auxiliary supply within a few seconds is necessary to reduce the downtime. Diesel Generators are mainly used as auxiliary power supply which uses fossil fuel and its costly so power factor correction using capacitors is also considered to create a well maintained switching system. .
- Page(s): 05-06
- Date of Publication: April 2014
- Fofandi Vikas DDepartment of Instrumentation and Control Government Engineering College, Gandhinagar Gujarat, India
- Suyani Ashok HDepartment of Instrumentation and Control Government Engineering College, Gandhinagar Gujarat, India
- Khalas Vishal BDepartment of Instrumentation and Control Government Engineering College, Gandhinagar Gujarat, India
 Sharaf AM and Huang H, “Nonlinear Load Reactive Compensation and Power Factor Correction Using Modulated Power Filter”.  Onar O C, Uzunoglu M, Alam M.S, “Dynamic Modeling, Design and Simulation of A Wind/Fuel Cell/Ultra-Capacitor-Based Hybrid Power Generation System”, Journal of Power Sources 161 PP.707–722, 2006.  Fitzgerald A E,Charles Kingsley, Jr Stephen D Umans, “ ELECTRIC MACHINERY” .  Nicolae DV “Electric Motor Performance Improvement Using Auxiliary Windings and Capacitance Injection”.  Salvador Acevedo ,Armando R Llamas,Jesús A Baez, Jorge A de los Reyes “Filters For Power Factor Correction in the Presence of Non-Linear Loads” IEEE  Suman Maiti , Chandan Chakraborty, “A New Instantaneous Reactive Power Based MRAS For Sensorless Induction Motor Drive”, PP 1314–1326 ,2010.  Sapna Khanchi, Vijay Kumar Garg, “Power Factor Improvement of Induction Motor by Using Capacitors”  SAIFUL ANUAR BIN ALWI, Faculty of Electrical & Electronics Engineering Universiti Malaysia Pahang, “AUTOMATIC MAIN FAILURE (AMF) SYSTEM”
Fofandi Vikas D, Suyani Ashok H, Khalas Vishal B "Auto Mains Failure with Diesel Generator Operation" International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science-IJLTEMAS vol.3 issue 4a, pp.05-06 2014
Polyaniline (PANI) is a conducting polymer that has been widely studied for electronic and optical applications. Unlike other conjugated polymers, polyaniline has a simple and reversible acid/base doping/ dedoping chemistry enabling control over its various properties like conductivity, optical activity and environmental stability. Conductivity of PANI was measured and it was found that if certain volatile chemicals are exposed to it there is a certain change in its value of conductivity. It was prepared on filter paper, which acts as visual sensor as it changes color when it is dipped in buffer ammonia solution or sodium hydroxide etc. It also acts as endpoint indicator also wherein the small piece of PANI embedded paper was cut and it was used in titration of different acid base solutions comparing it with phenolphthalein and methyl orange as indicators. The same filter paper was used to filter acid and bases. So, authors suggests a polyaniline embedded paper as a lower cost alternative for the sensor and indicator.
- Page(s): 07-10
- Date of Publication: April 2014
- Badal LodhariChemical Engineering Department Institute of Technology, Nirma University Gujarat, India
- Yash PatelChemical Engineering Department Institute of Technology, Nirma University Gujarat, India
- Neha Patni Chemical Engineering Department Institute of Technology, Nirma University Gujarat, India
- Shibu.G.PillaiChemical Engineering Department Institute of Technology, Nirma University Gujarat, India
 J.H. Alan, Semi-conducting and metallic polymers: the fourth generation of polymeric materials, Synthetic Metals, 125 (1)2002,23-42.  C.K. Chiang, C. R.Fincher Jr., Y. W. Park, A. J. Heeger, H. Shirakawa& E. J. Louis, Electrical conductivity in doped polyacetylene,Physics Review Letters. 39,1977, 1098-1101.  P. Dutta, S. Biswas, M. Ghosh, S. K. De&S. Chatterjee, The dc and ac conductivity of the polyaniline-polyvinyl alcohol blends,Synthetic Metals,122, 2001, 455-461.  T. A. Skotheim, R. L. Elsenbaumer&J. R. Reynolds,Handbook of Conducting Polymers.Marcel Dekker,1998, New York.  A. Kros, S.W. Van Hovel, R. J. M. Nolte, N. A. Sommerdijk, A printable glucose sensor based on a poly(pyrrole)-latex hybrid material,Sensors and Actuator,80, 2001, 229-233.  H. Kaeami, M.F.Mousavi&M. Shamsipur, A new design for dry polyaniline rechargeable batteries, Power Sources,117, 2003, 255-259.  T. Yamauchi, S. Tansuriyavong, K. Doi, K. Oshima, M. Shimomura, N. Tsubokawa, S. Miyauchi&J. F. V. Vincent, Preparation of composite materials of polypyrrole and electroactive polymer gel using for actuating system,Synthetic Metals,152, 2005, 45-48.  C. W. Lin, B. J. Hwang& C. R. Lee. Methanol sensors based on the conductive polymer composites from polypyrrole and poly(vinyl alcohol),Materials Chemistry & Physics,55, 1998, 139-144.  K. A. Noh, D. W. Kim, C. S. Jin, K. H. Shin, J. H. Kim& J. M. Ko, Synthesis and pseudo-capacitance of chemically-prepared polypyrrole powder,Power Sources,124, 2003, 593-595.  C. Y. Lee, H. M. Kim, J. W. Park, Y. S. Gal, J. I. Jin, J. Joo, AC electrical properties of conjugated polymers and theoretical high-frequency behavior of multilayer films,Synthetic Metals,117, 2001, 109-113,.  G. N. Marija, T. S. Jadranka, G. A. Bowmaker, R. P. Cooney, C. Thompson&P. A. Kilmartin, The antioxidant activity of conducting polymers in biomedical applications , Current Applied Physics,4, 2004, 347-350.  R. P. McCall, J. M. Ginder, J.M. Leng, K. A. Coplin, H. J.Ye, A. J. Epstein, G. E. Asturias, S.K. Manohar, J. G. Masters, E. M. Scherr, Y. Sun, A. G. MacDiarmid,Photoinduced absorption and erasable optical information storage in polyanilines, Synthetic Metals,41,1991,1329−32.  D. A. Makeiff, T. Huber, Microwave absorption by polyaniline-carbon nanotube composites,Synthetic Metals,156,2006, 497−505.  A. Drelinkiewicz, A. Waksmundzka-Góra, J. W. Sobczak, J. Stejskal , Hydrogenation of 2-ethyl-9,10-anthraquinone on Pd-polyaniline(SiO2) composite catalyst & its effect on humidity, Applied Catalysis A, 333, 2007, 219-28.  C. Zhao, S. Xing, Y. Yu, W. Zhang, C. Wang, A novel all-plastic diode based upon pure polyaniline material,Microelectronics, 38, 2007, 316−20.  I. Willner, B. Willner, E. Katz, Biomolecule-nanoparticle hybrid systems for bioelectronic applications,Bioelectrochemistry, 70, 2007, 2−11.  N.V.Blinova, J. Stejskal, M.Trchová,G.Ćirić-Marjanović, I Sapurina, Polymerization of aniline on polyaniline membranes,Journal of Physical ChemistryB,111,2007, 2440–2448.  Malmonge, J. A. Mattoso, L.H.C, Doping of polyaniline and derivatives induced by X-ray radiation, Synthetic Metals, 84,1997, 779-780.  Z Ping ,G.E. Nauer,H.Neugebauer, J.Theiner, A.Neckei. In situ fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopic investigations on the base-acid transitions of leucoemeraldine,ElectrochimicaActa, 42, 1997, 1693−1700.  N. Gospodinova*,Terlemezyan , Conducting polymers prepared by oxidative polymerization: polyanilineProg. Polym. Sci., Vol. 23, (1998), 1443–1484.
Badal Lodhari, Yash Patel, Neha Patni, Shibu.G.Pillai "Role of Polyaniline as Chemical Sensor and Acid-Base Titration Indicator " International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science-IJLTEMAS vol.3 issue 4a, pp.07-10 2014
The decrement in availability of manpower leads every industry to make use of robotics. Smart rescue robots are designed to help the search and rescue team to analyze the situation in the disaster prone area (like terrorist bombing, serious accident leak of dangerous substance) and direct them to collect the information so that the team can make the work less hazardous. This paper presents a maxi-sized rescue robot whose primary motivation is to save life and more civilian response. The microcontroller that has been used is PIC-16F877A with flash memory. It can navigate autonomously through any rubble and checks the atmosphere temperature using temperature sensor. The real-time locating system is used to automatically identify and track the location of objects or people usually within building debris using GSM. The programming language used is embedded C which is executed by visual basic.
- Page(s): 11-16
- Date of Publication: April 2014
- Ms.B.Kalaimathi Assistant Professor SNS College of Engineering, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
- Keerthana RameshUG Scholars SNS College of Engineering, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
- R.KanimozhiUG Scholars SNS College of Engineering, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
- R.Sangeetha UG Scholars SNS College of Engineering, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
References Bluetooth and ZigBee: compare and contrast, By Joanie Wexler, Network World | Network World US | Published: 01:00, 16 March 2005.  ”A Rescue Robot Control Architecture ensuring Safe Semi-Autonomous Operation “(2002) by‟ Andreas Birk and Holger Kenn‟ International University Bremen (IUB) School of Engineering and Science.  “A Decision-Theoretic Framework to Select Effective Observation Locations in Robotic Search and Rescue Scenarios(2010)” by' Francesco Amigoni, Nicola Basilico‟  “Intelligent Robot-assisted Humanitarian Search and Rescue System” (2009), by „Albert W. Y. Ko* and Henry Y. K. Lau‟ in Intelligent System Laboratory, The University of Hong Kong Pokfulam Road, Hong kong SAR  IEEE/ASME TRANSACTIONS ON MECHATRONICS, VOL. 18, NO. 3, (JUNE 2013),”Smart Host Microcontroller for Optimal Battery Charging in a Solar-Powered Robotic Vehicle”, b‟y Tom´as de J. Mateo Sanguino and Justo E. Gonz´alez Ramos‟  ”Design and control of a Miniature Quadrator(2007)”, by‟ Samir Bouabdallah and Roland Siegwart „of Autonomous Systems Lab, ETH Zurich, Switzerland presented the latest developments in ASL-MFR Project.  International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology,Vol. 3, February, 2009, titled “Robot Assisted Emergency Search and Rescue System With a Wireless Sensor Network” by „Albert Ko and Henry Y. K. Lau‟ of Intelligent Systems Laboratory, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GSM  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RELAY  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RESCUE SYSTEM  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DRIVER CIRCUIT
Ms.B.Kalaimathi, Keerthana Ramesh, R.Kanimozhi, R.Sangeetha "Smart Rescue Robot " International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science-IJLTEMAS vol.3 issue 4a, pp.11-16 2014
In this paper we propose a system based on coin recognition in which Indian coins of different denominations are detected by image subtraction technique. The goal of the system is achieved in three phases (Acquisition, segmentation, subtraction). Firstly, high resolution image is taken as input and the coin image is separated from its background using segmentation, then comparison between input image and standard database image is performed. Technique of rotation invariance is applied in this system in which the input image of coin is rotated by certain fixed angle and then compared with the database images after every rotation. This technique facilitates transaction making it easier in all forms of trade. This is the convenient method of coin recognition.
- Page(s): 17-19
- Date of Publication: April 2014
- Monali DawareDepartment of Computer Engineering Sinhgad Institute of Technology Lonavala, India
- Manali KhadgeDepartment of Computer Engineering Sinhgad Institute of Technology Lonavala, India
- Arya ManeDepartment of Computer Engineering Sinhgad Institute of Technology Lonavala, India
- S.B.WaykarDepartment of Computer Engineering Sinhgad Institute of Technology Lonavala, India
 R. Bremananth, B. Balaji, M. Sankari, A. Chitra, “A New Approach to Coin Recognition using Neural Pattern Analysis”, 2005 annual IEEE, Indicon, pp. 366-370  Vaibhav Gupta, Rachit Puri, Monir Verma, “ Prompt Indian Coin Recognition with Rotation Invariance using Image Subtraction Technique”, 2011.  P. Thumwarin, S. Malila, P. Janthawong, W. Pibulwej, T. Matsuura, “ARobust Coin Recognition with Rotation Invariance”, InternationalConference on Communications, Circuits and System Proceedings,2006  M. Fukumi, S. Omatu, "Rotation-Invariant Neural Pattem Recognition System with Application to Coin Recognition", IEEE Trans. Neural Networks, Vol.3, No. 2, pp. 272-279, March, 1992.  Linlin Shen, Sen Jia, Zhen Ji, “Statictics of Gabor Features for Coin Recognition”, IEEE International Workshop on Imaging Systems and Techniques, 2009. IST '09, pp.295-298.
Monali Daware, Manali Khadge, Arya Mane, S.B.Waykar "Coin Recognition Using Image Subtraction" International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science-IJLTEMAS vol.3 issue 4a, pp.17-19 2014
Main issue in the database migration is the work of data organizing, analyzing, accuracy and integrity. In this paper we have tried to eliminate these problems, by making use of XML file as an intermediate. XML supplies a neutral platform for the information description. As the information is mostly stored in RDBs, we have decided to create a system to export the information from a DB into XML, and to import XML documents into any RDB management system. Till date systems were available to covert data from one DB into an XML file, in our paper we have given more emphasis on the conversion of the XML file into the required target DB. Our system has enabled us to transform data from one DB into another using XML as an intermediate representation. Main aim of our paper is to generate a system to automate the transference of data between databases. The proposed system performs conversion of DBs like Ms-Access, MS-SQL, Oracle, and MySQL.
- Page(s): 20-22
- Date of Publication: April 2014
- Aditi V. ParabDepartment of Computer Engineering, SIT Lonavala, Pune, Maharashtra, India
- Onkar DhaneDepartment of Computer Engineering, SIT Lonavala, Pune, Maharashtra, India
- Anuja DeshmukhDepartment of Computer Engineering, SIT Lonavala, Pune, Maharashtra, India
- Aakash MahajaniDepartment of Computer Engineering, SIT Lonavala, Pune, Maharashtra, India
 M. Carey, D. Florescu, Z. Ives, Y. Lu, J. Shanmugasundaram, E. Shekita and S. Subramanian, “XPERANTO: Publishing Object-Relational Data as XML, Proc. of the International Workshop on Web and Databases, 2000.  M. Carey, J. Kiernan , J. Shanmugasundaram, E. Shekita, and S.Subramanian, " XPERANTO: A Middleware for Publishing Object-Relational Data as XML Documents," Proc. of the 26th International Conference on Very Large Databases, 2000, Pages [646 -648 ].  T. Naser, K. Kianmehr, R. Alhaj j and M. J. Ridley. “Transforming Object-Oriented Databases into XML”, IEEE 1-4233-1500-4/07, 2007,p[600- 605].  T. Naser, R. Alhajj and M. J. Ridley. “Flexible Approach for Representing Object Oriented Databases in XML Format”. In: X International Conference on Information Integration and Web-based Applications Services (iiWAS), Linz, Austria, Nov 24-26, ACM, 2008. [p 430-434].  T. Naser, R. Alhajj and M. J. Ridley. “Two-Way Mapping between Object-Oriented Databases and XML”. Informatica 33 2009 [p 297 -308]  Sacks-Davis, R., Arnold-Moore, T., Zobel, J., Database Systems for Structured Documents. IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems, Vol. E78-D
Aditi V. Parab, Onkar Dhane, Anuja Deshmukh, Aakash Mahajani "An Approach to Heterogeneous Database Migration" International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering,Management & Applied Science-IJLTEMAS vol.3 issue 4a, pp.20-22 2014
Risk & problems in every walk of life. Likewise it exists in every construction projects also. Firstly all the risk factors are to be identified, understand the significance of various risks and its possible effects in the construction projects. If they are done so, then it will be so easy to mitigate to above risks, will have benefits in any construction projects productivity. This paper deals with identification & analysis of various risk factors, classification of risk, quantification of risks and problems by way of conducting a detailed survey among the engineers, contractors, and experts belong to various construction firms in the form of questionnaires. The above questionnaire has been conceived in such a manner that it has the details of profile of construction firm, their understanding about productivity and various risk factors. The collected data through the above survey the ranking has been done to find the greater risk factors which affect the construction project. Finally the relative importance index (RII) formula for productivity risk index has been arrived. The formula arrived from this research paper is implemented in construction projects definitely the major risk factors will size ably get reduced. As a result the productivity will enhance remarkably. Thus optimum solution will be obtained. After determined the top ten risk factors the root cause analysis will be made and solution & suggestion will be given.
- Page(s): 23-31
- Date of Publication: April 2014
- Mr. A.RamkumarEBET Group of Institutions Kangeyam, India
- Prof. S.GopalakrishnanEBET Group of Institutions Kangeyam, India
1. Adman enchase. professor of construction engineering and management, Managing And Minimizing Construction Waste In Gaza Strip. 2. chitkara (1994), Construction Project Management Tata McGraw-hill publishing company limited, new Delhi, pp. 180-218. 3. Johanna Berwick, Kirsten Rogers, Edward Corbett, Sarah bench & key Jackson An Analysis of the Prevalence and Distribution of Stress in the Construction. 4. Industry, prepared by the health and safety laboratory for the health and safety executive 2007. 5. Kasha simu Lulea, January 2009,The Construction Site Manager's Impact on Risk Management Performance, Division of architecture and infrastructure, department of civil, mining and environmental engineering, Lulea university of technology. 6. Majid, causes and effects of delays in construction industry, master‟s thesis, university technology Malaysia 2006. 7. Mulholland .b and Christian‟s (1999) Risk Assessment In Construction Schedules, journal of construction engineering and management, vol. 125, and no. 1, January / February, ASCE. 8. Manual on construction risks, damage to the works and advanced loss of profits (ALOP), characteristics of construction projects. 9. Osama ahmed jannadi and salman almishari (2003), Risk Assessment In Construction, journal of construction engineering and management, vol.129, no. 5, october 1, ASCE. 10. Safety, health and welfare on construction sites, a training manual, international labor office Geneva. 11. Talat birgonul, assoc. Prof. Dr. Irem deskmen toker, buqammaz, amani suliman, Risk Assessment of International Construction Projects Using the Analytic Network Process, a thesis submitted to the graduate school of natural and applied sciences of middle east technical university. 12. Xaba,may 2011, Root Cause Analysis Of Major Capital Projects Failure At Transnet Freight Rail, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the masters in business administration, university of south Africa.
Mr. A.Ramkumar, Prof.S.Gopalakrishnan "Analysis of Project Delays In Construction Industry for Client, Contractor & Consultant Related Issues" International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering,Management & Applied Science-IJLTEMAS vol.3 issue 4a, pp.23-31 2014
In the present study, we have made efforts to investigate Anti-bacterial activity of Mannich bases against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results have shown that Anti-bacterial activity of these compounds can be modeled excellently in tri-parametric models in which Weiner index W, Balaban index F and Topological index T played a dominating role. The predictive ability of the model is discussed on the basis of cross-validation method. The superiority of these indices over several other molecular descriptors is critically examined. The values obtained for the best model are- R2 = 0.6278, Adjusted R2= 0.4417, Coefficient of variation= 0.2811 and F-ratio= 3.374.
- Page(s): 32-37
- Date of Publication: April 2014
- Teena PareekSchool of Chemical Sciences, DAVV, Indore, India
- Chanchala JoshiAcropolis Technical Campus, Indore, India
- Deepak KhareLakshmi Narayan College of Technology, Indore, India
- Dheeraj MandloiInstitute of Engineering and Technology, DAVV, Indore, India
- Surabhi PurohitUniversity of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India
1. M. Malhotra, M. Sanduja, A. Samad, A. Deep, New oxadiazole derivatives of isonicotinohydrazide in the search for antimicrobial agents: synthesis and in vitro evaluation. J. Serb.Chem. Soc. 76, 1–15, 2011. 2. J. March (1985), Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions, Mechanisms, and Structure (3rd ed.), New York: Wiley, ISBN 0-471-85472-7 3. https://chemicalland21.com/info/SULFONAMIDE%20CLASS%20ANTIBIOTICS.htm 4. D. Khare, “Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Some Biologically Active Mannich Bases”, Ph. D. Thesis, DAVV University, Indore, 2005. 5. V. K. Agrawal, R. Sharma, P.V. Khadikar, Bioorg. Med. Chem. 10, 2993, 2002. 6. A. Saxena, P.V. Khadikar, Acta Pharm. 49, 171, 1999. 7. S. Karmarkar, P. V. Khadikar, M. Mandloi, S. Joshi, V. K. Agrawal, Indian J. Chem. 40A, 12, 2001. 8. D. Mandloi, S. Joshi, P.V. Khadikar, N. Khosla, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 15, 405, 2005. 9. V. K. Agrawal, J. Singh, P. V. Khadikar, C. T. Supuran, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 16, 2044, 2006. 10. S. Karmarkar, S. Joshi, A. Das,P. V. Khadikar, J. Serb. Chem. Soc., 62, 227, 1997. 11. J. Singh, M. Lakhwani, P. V. Khadikar, V. K. Agrawal, A. T. Balaban, W. B. Clare, Romania Rev. 14, 103-118, 2006. 12. R. Todeschini, V. Consonni, Handbook of Molecular Descriptors, Wiley- VCH: Weinheim (GER), 2000. 13. M. Karelson, Molecular descriptors in QSAR/QSPR, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 2000. 14. H. Wiener, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 69, 17, 1947. 15. L. Pogliani, Amino Acids 6, 141, 1994. 16. L. Pogliani, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 18065, 1996. 17. L. Pogliani, Chem. Rev. 100, 3827, 2000. 18. I. Gutman, J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 34, 1087-1089, 1994. 19. S. Klavzar, J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci., 36, 1001-1003, 1996. 20. A. T. Balaban, Chem. Phys. Lett., 89, 399, 1982. 21. I. Gutman, Ruscic, N. Trinajstic, C. F. Wilkox, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 62, 3339-3405, 1975. 22. ACD-Lab software for calculating the referred physicochemical parameters. Chemsketch. https://www.acdlabs.com/acdlabs-rss-feed.xml 23. DRAGON Software for calculation of topological indices. https://www.disatunimib.it 24. J. Hintze, (2012). NCSS 8. NCSS, LLC. Kaysville, Utah, USA. www.ncss.com
Teena Pareek, A.V. Bajaj, Chanchala Joshi, Deepak Khare, Dheeraj Mandloi, Surabhi Purohit "QSAR Study of Sulphonamides with Anti-bacterial Activity Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa" International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering,Management & Applied Science-IJLTEMAS vol.3 issue 4a, pp.32-37 2014
VHDL is the VHSIC Hardware Description Language. VHSIC is an abbreviation for Very High Speed Integrated Circuit. It can describe the behaviour and structure of electronic systems, but is particularly suited as a language to describe the structure and behaviour of digital electronic hardware designs, such as ASICs and FPGAs as well as conventional digital circuits. VHDL is a notation, and is precisely and completely defined by the Language Reference Manual ( LRM ). This sets VHDL apart from other hardware description languages, which are to some extent defined in an ad hoc way by the behaviour of tools that use them. VHDL is an international standard, regulated by the IEEE. The definition of the language is non-proprietary. VHDL is not an information model, a database schema, a simulator, a toolset or a methodology! However, a methodology and a toolset are essential for the effective use of VHDL. Simulation and synthesis are the two main kinds of tools which operate on the VHDL language. The Language Reference Manual does not define a simulator, but unambiguously defines what each simulator must do with each part of the language. VHDL does not constrain the user to one style of description. VHDL allows designs to be described using any methodology - top down, bottom up or middle out! VHDL can be used to describe hardware at the gate level or in a more abstract way. Successful high level design requires a language, a tool set and a suitable methodology. VHDL is the language, you choose the tools, and the methodology
- Page(s): 38-40
- Date of Publication: April 2014
- Manoj MaliAsst.Prof Electronics & Communication Department, Shri USB College of Engineering, Abu Road, Rajasthan, India
- Himanshu Trivedi M Tech Student Electronics & Communication Department, Geetanjali Institute of Technical Studies, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
 Why should I care about Transparent Latches?". Doulos. Retrieved 22 December 2012..  "Clock Generation". Doulos. Retrieved 22 December 2012.  Peter J. Ashenden, "The Designer's Guide to VHDL, Third Edition (Systems on Silicon)", 2008,  Bryan Mealy, Fabrizio Tappero (February 2012). Free Range VHDL  www.coel.ecgf.uakron.edu  ww.w.vhdlbynaresh.blogspot.in
Manoj Mali, Himanshu Trivedi "A Review: Digital System Design by VHDL" International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science-IJLTEMAS vol.3 issue 4a, pp.38-40 2014
In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency, or alternatively when the group velocity depends on the frequency. Media having such a property are termed dispersive media. Dispersion is sometimes called chromatic dispersion to emphasize its wavelength-dependent nature, or group-velocity dispersion (GVD) to emphasize the role of the group velocity. Dispersion is most often described for light waves, but it may occur for any kind of wave that interacts with a medium or passes through an inhomogeneous geometry (e.g., a waveguide), such as sound waves. A material's dispersion is measured by its Abbe number, V, with low Abbe numbers corresponding to strong dispersion.
- Page(s): 41-42
- Date of Publication: April 2014
- Himanshu TrivediPG student, Geetanjali Institute of Technical Studies, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
- Kiran RathorePG student, Geetanjali Institute of Technical Studies, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
- Manoj MaliAsst. Prof. Shri USB Collage of Engineering and Management, Abu Road, Rajasthan, India
 R. Paschotta, tutorial on "Passive Fiber Optics", Part 10:Nonlinearities of Fibers and Part 12: Ultrashort Pulses  Chromatic-Dispersion-in-Optical-Fibers by Kevin Milleron Wed, Aug 24, 201  E. B. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression withdiffraction gratings”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5,454 (1969)  O. E. Martínez et al., “Negative group-velocitydispersion using refraction”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1 (10),1003 (1984)  R. L. Fork et al., “Negative dispersion using pairs ofprisms”, Opt. Lett. 9 (5), 150 (1984)  D. Garthe et al., “Adjustable dispersion equaliser for 10and 20 Gbit/s over distances up to 160 km”, Electron.Lett. 30 (25), 2159 (1994)  www.rp-photonics.com  www.m2optics.com
Himanshu Trivedi, Kiran Rathore, Manoj Mali "A Review: Dispersion in Optical Fiber" International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science-IJLTEMAS vol.3 issue 4a, pp.41-42 2014
This research work paves the way to explore new avenues in existing and ongoing groundwork in the field of heat exchangers. There is a dire need to address the issues related to air-cooled heat exchangers used in chemicals and energy industry. The distortions found in fully manufactured rectangular/plug header-boxes and flange-type bonnet headers can be adverse. They need to be monitored and resolved. Proper diagnosis throughout their processing and testing only can determine the root cause. This is usually done by non-destructive testing methods. Here a thorough study of the system is presented. An organized approach for the same is also proposed to eliminate the defects.
- Page(s): 43-56
- Date of Publication: April 2014
- Pablo DubeyStudent,M.E. in Advance Production Systems NITTTR, Bhopal, India
- Dr. A. K. Sarathe Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering NITTTR, Bhopal, India
I. A. Karimi, G. P. Rangaiah, S. S. Shastri et al., “Enhance air-cooled heat exchanger performance,” Hydrocarbon Processing, 12 January 2001. HDFC Securities, “GEI Industrial Systems Ltd,” HDFC Ltd., [Online]. Available: https://www.hdfcsec.com/Market/Information.aspx?CoCode=5076&RptType=History. GEI Industries Ltd, “Infrastructure,” GEI Industrial Systems Ltd, Govindpura, Bhopal, India, [Online]. Available: https://www.geiind.com/infrastructure.php. GEI Industrial Systems Ltd, “Clients,” GEI Industrial Systems Ltd, Govindpura, Bhopal, India, [Online]. Available: https://www.geiind.com/client.php. CRISIL Research Ltd, “eq_GEINDSYS_base,” 2011. [Online]. Available: https://www.nseindia.com/content/corporate/eq_GEINDSYS_base.pdf. Kasera Heat Transfer Pvt Ltd, “Air Cooled Heat Exchanger,” [Online]. Available: https://www.kaseraheattransfer.com/Air%20Cooled%20Heat%20Exchanger.pdf. R. K. Shah and D. P. Sekulic, “Classification of Heat Exchangers,” in Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger Design, New Jersey, John Wiley & Sons, 2003, pp. 1-74. K. Thulukkanam, “Heat Exchangers: Introduction, Classification, and Selection,” in Heat Exchanger Design Handbook, Second Edition, CRC Press, 2013, pp. 1-27. GEA Energy Technology Division, GEA Luftkühler GmbH, “GLK Product Catalog: Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers,” [Online]. Available:https://22.214.171.124/opencms/export/sites/default/galleries/gib_gallery/Air-Cooled_Heat_Exchangers.pdf. Smithco Engineering Inc., “AMERCOOL: Basics of Air Cooled Heat Exchangers,” 8 February 2005. [Online]. Available: https://www.onsitepowerinc.com/documents/supplierDocs/amercool/Basics%20of%20Air%20cooled%20Heat%20Exchangers%20rev1.pdf. GEI Industrial Systems Ltd, “Corporate Presentation March 2012,” 19 March 2012. [Online]. Available: https://www.geiind.com/pdf/GEI_Corporate_Presentation_March2012.pdf. GEA Group AG, “Air-cooled heat exchangers: Cutting-edge technologies for individual solutions,” 16 May 2013. [Online]. Available: https://www.gea-heatexchangers.com/products/air-cooled-heat-exchangers/air-fin-coolers/file/f83052c0dc930751bde788b6bb160bd9/?eID=downloadManager. GEA Heat Exchangers / Global, “Oil & Gas - Petrochemical Systems | GEA Heat Exchangers,” GEA Heat Exchangers, 2014. [Online]. Available: https://www.gea-heatexchangers.com/products/shell-tube-heat-exchangers/petrochemical-systems/. API Heat Transfer, “heat exchangers in petrochemical industry,” API Schmidt-Bretten GmbH & Co. KG, [Online]. Available: https://www.apischmidt-bretten.de/us/app_chemie_petro.php. hydrocarbons-technology.com, “GEA Aircooled Systems - Heat Exchangers for the Petrochemical Industry,” Kable Intelligence Limited, 2014. [Online]. Available: https://www.hydrocarbons-technology.com/contractors/hvac/geaaircooledsystems/. J. J. McKetta, “Air Cooled Heat Exchangers,” in Heat Transfer Design Methods, New York, CRC Press (Marcel Dekker), 1991, pp. 189-200. Welding and allied processes - Classification of geometric imperfections in metallic materials, ISO-6520 (Part-1: Fusion welding), 2007. GE Oil & Gas, “Air cooled heat exchangers,” 2011. [Online]. Available: https://www.ge-energy.com/content/multimedia/_files/downloads/GE_ACHE.pdf. ASME, “Engineering History - ASME,” American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2013. [Online]. Available: https://www.asme.org/about-asme/who-we-are/engineering-history. NBBI, “The National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors,” nationalboard.org, 2013. [Online]. Available: https://www.nationalboard.org/. Lloyd‟s Register Group Services Limited - 2013, “Indian boiler regulation (IBR 1950),” Lloyd‟s Register Group Services Limited 2013, 2013. [Online]. Available: https://www.lrenergy.org/Services_we_Offer/Certification/IBR1950.aspx. Oil Industry Safety Directorate, “Oil Industry Safety Directorate- Guidance Notes 2012,” 2012. [Online]. Available: https://www.oisd.gov.in/WRITEREADDATA/GuidancenotesApril2012.pdf. U. o. Florida, “Unit Operations Lab, Department of Chemical Engineering,” 2013. [Online]. Available: https://www.che.ufl.edu/unit-ops-lab/experiments/HE/HE-theory.pdf. Collaboration for Nondestructive Testing, “General Introduction to NDT Presentation,” [Online]. Available: www.ndt-ed.org/GeneralResources/IntroToNDT/Intro_to_NDT.ppt. [Accessed 2013]. “NDT - Non Destructive Testing,” The Engineering ToolBox, [Online]. Available: https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/ndt-non-destructive-testing-d_314.html. V. Vasauskas and S. Baskutis, “Failures and fouling analysis in heat exchangers,” Mechanika, vol. 61, pp. 29-30, 2006. D. S. Edwards, “Control of soundness and mechanical properties in aluminium-silicon-magnesium alloys,” PhD Thesis, Aston University, 1973. B. Foucher, V. Rouet and R. Reynet, “Device for Monitoring the Integrity and Soundness of a Mechanical Structure, and Method for Operating such a Device”. France Patent WO/2012/104539, 9 August 2012. M. Kozuki, S. Sakamaki, B. An et al., “Material Properties and Internal Soundness of a Huge Cast Steel Node Joint,” in Offshore Technology Conf., Houston, Texas, 1984. National Instructional Media Institute, CTI campus, Chennai, WELDER Trade Theory, Chennai: National Instructional Media Institute, Guindy, Chennai, 2003, pp. 201-205. I.-R. Aachen, “Welding Defects,” ISF Aachen, Aachen, 2005. IIT-Roorkee, “Lecture 13 (Welding Defects),” NPTEL, Ministry of HRD, Government of India, [Online]. Available: https://nptel.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IIT-ROORKEE/MANUFACTURING-PROCESSES/welding/lecture13.htm. E. M. van der Aa, “Local Cooling during Welding: Prediction and Control of Residual Stresses and Buckling Distortion,” PhD Thesis, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands Institute for MetalsResearch), 2007. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., “How to prevent and control welding distortion - a common problem affecting weld quality,” 25 November 2010. [Online]. Available: https://www.airproducts.com/~/media/Files/PDF/industries/metals-fabrication-how-to-prevent-control-welding-distortion.pdf. C. L. Tsai, S. C. Park and W. T. Cheng, “Welding Distortion of a Thin-Plate Panel,” Welding Journal, vol. May, no. Supplement, pp. 156s-165s, 1999. Zhili Feng, Measuring welding-induced distortion, Cambridge: Woodhed Publishing Limited, 2005, pp. 210-211. A. Pilipenko, “Computer simulation of residual stress and distortion of thick plates in multi-electrode submerged arc welding: Their mitigation techniques,” PhD Thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, 2001. Lincoln Electric, “Weld Distortion,” The Lincoln Electric Company, 1999. [Online]. Available: https://www.lincolnelectric.com/en-us/support/welding-how-to/pages/weld-distortion-detail.aspx. T. D. Huang, C. Conrady, P. Dong et al., “Distortion Mitigation Technique for Lightweight Ship Structure Fabrication,” Journal of Ship Production and Design - JSPD, vol. 1706, no. May, pp. 1-12, 2007. W. R. Stuart, “Method of Forming Distortion Resistant Tubular Elements”. United States of America Patent 3,298,096, 17 January 1967. D. J. Kotecki, “Classification of Stainless Steel,” American Welding Society, November 1998. [Online]. Available: https://www.aws.org/w/a/wj/1998/11/kotecki. T. Schenk, “Modelling Welding Distortion: Influence of Clamping and Sequencing,” Phd Thesis, Technische Universiteit Delft (Materials Innovation Institute, Netherlands - MC8.06256), 2011. M. S. Sulaiman, Y. H. Manurung, E. Haruman et al., “Simulation and experimental study on distortion of butt and T-joints,” Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 1-6, 2011. Y. G. Duan, Y. Vincent, F. Boitout et al., “Prediction of welding residual distortions of large structures using a local/global approach,” Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1-7, 2007. P. Michaleris, J. Dantzig and D. Tortorelli, “Minimization of Welding Residual Stress and Distortion in Large Structures,” Welding Journal, vol. 78, no. November, pp. 1s-6s, 1999. R. M. Dull, J. R. Dydo, J. J. Russell et al., “Method of reducing distortion by transient thermal tensioning”. United States of America Patent 6,861,617 B2, 1 March 2005. S. Okano, M. Mochizuki and M. Toyoda, “Weld residual distortion produced due to locally cooled temperature distribution and its reduction effect,” Welding International, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 281-288, 2014. J. U. Park, S. C. Park and C. H. Lee, “Control of longitudinal bending distortion of built-up beams by high-frequency induction heating,” Welding Journal, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 29s-34s, 2009. P. Colegrove, C. Ikeagu, A. Thistlethwaite et al., “The welding process impact on residual stress and distortion,” Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 717-725, 2009. S. R. Bhide, P. Michaleris, M. Posada et al., “Comparison of buckling distortion propensity for SAW, GMAW, and FSW,” Welding journal, vol. 85, no. 9, pp. 189-195, 2006. D. Deng, H. Murakawa and W. Liang, “Prediction of welding distortion in a curved plate structure by means of elastic finite element method,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 203, no. 1-3, pp. 252-266, 2008. S. Kastelic, J. Medved and P. Mrvar, “Prediction of numerical distortion after welding with various welding sequences and clampings,” Metalurgija, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 301-305, 2010. P. Michaleris and A. DeBiccari, “Prediction of welding distortion,” Welding Journal-Including Welding Research Supplement, vol. 76, no. 4, p. 172s, 1997. M. V. Deo, P. Michaleris and J. Sun, “Prediction of buckling distortion of welded structures,” Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 55-61, 2003. J. Wei and L. Gong-liang, “Forecast for butt welding deformation of the medium thickness plate based on genetic neural network,” in International Conference on Electric Technology and Civil Engineering, Three Gorges, Hubei, China, 2011. K. Y. Benyounis and A. G. Olabi, “Optimization of different welding processes using statistical and numerical,” Advances in Engineering Software, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 483-496, 2008. J. D. Caprace, F. A. Fernandez, N. Losseau et al., “A Fuzzy Metric for Assessing the Producibility of Straightening in Early Design,” in The 14th International Conference on Computer Applications in Shipbuilding, Shanghai, 2009. M. M. Mahapatra, P. K. Jha and P. Biswas, “Development of fuzzy logic system to predict the SAW weldment shape profiles,” Journal of Marine Science and Application, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 387-391, 2012. G. Casalino and F. M. C. Minutolo, “A model for evaluation of laser welding efficiency and quality using an artificial neural network and fuzzy logic,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, vol. 218, no. 6, pp. 641-646, 2004. J. E. R. Dhas and S. Kumaran, “Weld residual stress prediction using artificial neural network and Fuzzy logic modeling,” Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 351-360, 2011. V. Lashkia, “Defect detection in X-ray images using fuzzy reasoning,”Image and Vision Computing, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 261-269, 2001. D. Katherasan, J. V. Elias, P. Sathiya et al., “Flux Cored Arc Welding Parameter Optimization Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm,” Procedia Engineering: International Conference on Modelling, Optimisation and Computing, vol. 38, pp. 3913-3926, 2012. M. Satheesh and J. E. R. Dhas, “Multi Objective Optimization of Flux Cored Arc Weld Parameters using Fuzzy Based Desirability Function,” IJST, Transactions of Mechanical Engineering, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 175-187, 2013. H. K. Narang, U. P. Singh, M. M. Mahapatra et al., “Prediction of the weld pool geometry of TIG arc welding by using fuzzy logic controller,” International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 77-85, 2011. Larsen & Toubro Limited ECC-Division, “Welding skill Standards,” 2007. [Online]. Available: https://www.lntecc.com/homepage/csti/pdfs/Welding%20Skill%20Standards.pdf. Ontario College of Trades, “Compentency Analysis Profile,” 2012. [Online]. Available: https://www.collegeoftrades.ca/wp-content/uploads/M_Welder-456A-EN-TS.pdf. J. U. Park and H. W. Lee, “Effects of initial condition of steel plate on welding deformation and residual stress due to welding,” Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 426-435, 2007. C. Ohms, R. V. Martins, O. Uca et al., “The European network on neutron techniques standardization for structural integrity (NeT),” in ASME 2008 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, Chicago, 2008. A. Pahkamaa, L. Karlsson, J. Pavasson et al., “A Method to Improve Efficiency in Welding Simulations for Simulation Driven Design,” in ASME 2010 International Design Engineering Technical Conference & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, Montreal, 2010. Ador Welding Limited, “Welding Costs and Economics,” in Modern Arc Welding Technology, New Delhi, Oxford and IBH Publishing, 2005, pp. 619-620. GEI Industrial Systems Ltd, “Certificates,” GEI Industrial Systems Ltd, Govindpura, Bhopal, 2010. [Online]. Available: https://www.geiind.com/certificate.php. Plug Headers, API Standard-661 (Section 126.96.36.199.1), 1997. Examination, API Standard-661 (Section 11.3.3), 1997. Preparation For Shipment, API Standard-661 (Section10), 1997. NOVA Chemicals, NOVA Brands Ltd, “Engineering Standards; Air Cooled Exchanger, Design and Fabrication: ES-EXG-0301,” 31 October 2003. [Online]. Available: https://www.novachem.com/engineering/07_pvs/01_standards/es-exg-0301.pdf. Specification for Air Cooled Heat Exchangers, Bureau of Indian Standards (IS10470), 1983. Emerson Process Management, Emerson Electric Co., “AMS Suite: Performance Monitoring - Heat Exchangers,” July 2011. [Online]. Available: https://www2.emersonprocess.com/siteadmincenter/PM%20Asset%20Optimization%20Documents/ProductDataSheets/amspm_ds_PerMonHeatEx.pdf. R. Giammaruti, “Performance Improvement to Existing Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers,” in Cooling Technology Institute Annu. Conf., Houston, TX, 2004. Heat Exchanger & Heat Transfer Group, “What Heat Exchanger Software do people use?,” LinkedIn.com, 23 August 2011. [Online]. Available: https://www.linkedin.com/groups/What-Heat-Exchanger-Software-do-4046354.S.67345811. CODEWARE®, “COMPRESS®, The Standard in,” 23 10 2013. [Online].Available: https://www.codeware.com/compress/docs/COMPRESS-Brochure.pdf. E. Ginzel, “Ultrasonic Inspection 2, Training For Nondestructive Testing - Variables Affecting Test Results,” in Int.l NDT Conf., Amsterdam, 1998. P. Patriarca, G. M. Slaughter, W. D. Manly et al., “Fabrication of Heat Exchangers and Radiators for High Temperature Reactor Applications,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1955. Miscellaneous, “NuclearAircraft - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia,” Wikimedia Foundation, [Online]. Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_aircraft. [Accessed 24 November 2013]. B. A. Rogers, “The Hardening of Steel,” in The Nature of Metals, New Delhi, Radha Krishna Prakashan, 1965, pp. 150-193.
Pablo Dubey, Dr. A. K. Sarathe "A Review: Distortion Patterns during Fabrication of Header-Box of Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger " International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science-IJLTEMAS vol.3 issue 4a, pp.43-56 2014
M-type hexaferrites with composition Ba1-xPbxFe12O19 (x = 0.0 to 0.4) were prepared using a sol gel auto-combustion technique. The prepared as burnt powder samples were sintered at 950° C for 4 hours in a muffle furnace. The effect of lead substitution of barium hexaferrites on microstructural, magnetic and dielectric properties was investigated. The structural characterization on Ba1-xPbxFe12O19 (x = 0.0 to 0.4) hexaferrite samples were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The lattice parameters and cell volume of all samples were calculated. The X-ray diffraction patterns at room temperature reveal that the prepared samples have a single phase. Surface morphology and microstructural changes of prepared hexaferrite particles were examined using SEM and XRD. SEM images confirm the formation of hexagonal plate like particle and the addition of Pb increases the formation of plate like structures. The magnetic properties of prepared hexaferrite samples were investigated by using VSM and the dielectric measurements were carried out at room temperature in frequency ranges from 100 Hz to 2MHz.
- Page(s): 57-61
- Date of Publication: April 2014
- Reshma A. NandotariaDepartment of Physics Gujarat University Ahmedabad-380 009. India.
- Chetna C. ChauhanInstitute of Technology Nirma University Ahmedabad 382 481, India.
- Rajshree B JotaniaDepartment of Physics Gujarat University Ahmedabad-380 009. India.
 N. Shams, X. Liu,M. Matsumoto, A. Morisake, J. Magn. Magn. Mater, vol. 290, pp. pp.138-140, 2005.  O.Carp, R.Barjega, E. Srgal, M. Brezeanu, Thermochemica Acta vol. 318, pp.57-62, 1998.  A. M. Alsmadi, I. Bsoul, S. H. Mahmood, G. Alnawashi, K. Prokeš, K. Siemensmeyer, B. Klemke and H. Nakotte J. Appl. Phys., vol. 114, pp. 243910, 2013.  Arun Katoch, B. K. Borthakur, Anterpreet Singh, Taminder Singh, Int J. of Engineering Research & Technology, vol. 2 ( 3), 2013.  Philip Shepherd Æ Kajal K. Mallick Æ Roger J. Green, J Mater Sci: Mater Electron, vol. 18, pp.527–534, 2007.  E. D. Solov’eva, E. V. Pashkova, A. E. Perekos, A. G. Belous, Ino Mater, vol. 48 (11), pp1147-1152, 2012.  Y. Tokunaga, Y. Kaneko, D. Okuyama, S. Ishiwata, T.Arima, S.Wakimoto, K.Kakurai, Y. Taguchi, and Y. Tokura, Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 105, pp.25720, 2010.  Feng Hu, Lucia Fernandez-Garcia, Xian-Song Liu, De-Ru Zhu, Marta Suárez et al.: J. Appl. Phys., vol. 109, pp.113906, 2011.  Y. Liu, M.G.B. Drew, Y. Liu, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., vol. 323,pp.945–953, 2011.  R. C. Pullar, Progress in Materials Science, vol. 57, pp. 1191-1334 2012..  M. Manjural Haque, M. Heq,M. A. Hakim, Mater. Chem. Phys., vol. 112, pp.580-586, 2008.  A. Haq,M. Anis-ur-Rehman, Physica B, vol. 407,pp.822–826, 2012.  Y. Liu,M.G.B. Drew,Y. Liu, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 323 (2011),pp. 945–953.  S.G. Kim, W.N. Wang,T. Iwaki, J. Phys. Chem. C, vol. 111, pp. 10175–10180 2007.  J. C. Maxwell, Oxford University Press, New York, vol. 1, pp. 828, 1973.  K. W. Wagner, Annalen der Physik, vol. 40, pp. 817-855 1913.  M. A. Ahamad, J. Elhiti, Physique III, vol. 5, pp. 775, 1995.  M. Snaikh, S. S. Bellard,B. K. Chougule, J. Magn. Magn. Mater,vol. 195, pp. 384-390, 1999.  M. A. Ahamad, J. Elhiti, E. I. Nimar, A. M. Amar, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., vol. 152, pp.391-395, 1996.
Reshma A. Nandotaria, Chetna C. Chauhan, Rajshree B Jotania "Effect of Lead substitution On The Microstructural, Magnetic and Dielectric Properties of Barium Hexaferrite Powder" International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science-IJLTEMAS vol.3 issue 4a, pp.57-61 2014